Monastic History

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Monastic History Class, finish Spanish Monasticism, begin Anglo-Saxon Monasticism

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Let me, just for the record, what we're going to do today is finish Spanish monasticism and begin Anglo-Saxon monasticism, and I'm talking about fructuosis and the regula communis, which is the second of his rules. What he did was he didn't forbid the clan structure that had developed in Spain at this time. He decided to reform it, and so some of the elements of that reform were that he had them move into double houses of regular observance, that is, monasteries side by side, or houses within a walled monastery, one for women, one for men, and marital life ceases. A lot of the problems that were developing before this was that you had jealousies going on, and everybody was together, I mean, families were families, and they were fighting one


another within the monastic structure, and it just was not working out. So he's the one who put in that the children could see either one of their parents, but the wife and the husband were separated. They wanted to live this kind of life, they had to do it this way. There was a special overseer to take care of the children, so there's some kind of education going on there. A cellar as a system did that. They had their own, each community, so there's two communities within the community. As opposed to earlier double monasteries that we saw, and later ones which would come along throughout the centuries, they did not share a church. They each had their own church, they each had their own refectory, they didn't share common areas. One wonders why he even let them have two buildings side by side, it reminds me, if you're


going to go this far, I would think you might as well just have two separate focuses all together. But anyway, this is the way fructuosis worked. One had to keep absolute silence during work time, and there were supervisors. You can see fructuosis, even in this rule, carries through a little bathroom monitor mentality. More than bathroom monitor, because there was the whole schedule of punishments for infractions and whatnot, given in this rule also. Old people were accepted into the community, didn't matter that they were elderly, but they had to give all their money to the poor before they came into the community. Interestingly enough, we're talking 7th century Spain, they had to do this in order to avoid


litigation in the future. So there are already lawsuits going on in 7th century Spain regarding inheritance and whether the church should have gotten this and that sort of thing. Interesting. Criminals could also be accepted into the community. Well, he's used to this by now, and he had a whole other situation with this. But they formed a second class, there was a class structure. They were sort of like what became lay brothers in the Middle Ages, the real old-fashioned lay brother type. So they didn't even, you know, the lay brothers, well we'll see that development later on, they didn't pray the office or anything, they just worked. And that's what these monks, these monastics would do if they had been prisoners. They were just laborers who lived within the community, and they had a much harsher life. It doesn't say here that they didn't worship or anything, but they did the hard work.


If any of them ran back, this is in this rule also, any fugitive monks, so those would probably usually be the former prisoners, probably, they were brought back in chains and put in prison. They had monastic prison at that time, we'll see those all. Even our own conglomerates have these, some of them had monastic prisons. They wore a hair shirt, now this is everyone, wears a hair shirt while working. They would be, occasionally anyone could be treated harshly and scorned in public to test humility and patience. There's a contract between the abbot and the monks, this is the most interesting part of all from this particular rule of fructuosis, there's a contract that's signed between the


abbot and the monks, which now for the first time stipulates a real law of justice for the monks. That is, it establishes mutual rights for the abbot and the monks, it makes everything clear. That is, the abbot's rights are, he has the right to teach, to order, to correct or admonish, to excommunicate and to throw out of the community. Those are his rights, which can't be taken away from him. The abbot's duties are to treat everyone justly, to love all equally, and to rule all equally. Of course, within that structure there's double, there's two levels, there's a class structure, those guys who are prisoners. What do the monks have to do?


The monks' duties are obedience according to the rule, and this is the interesting part, quote, as far as God gives them power to obey, unquote. As far as God gives them power to obey. I'll talk about that in just a minute. Another duty, a monk has a duty not to murmur and not to run away. Those are the duties. So don't complain, don't run away, obedience according to the rule, and don't have cliques, don't start cliques. Those are the duties. What are the rights of the monks? This is the new thing, the first time we see rights of monks legislated. He or the monk can complain against an abbot for neglect, if the abbot doesn't listen,


he can take that to another monastic house and bring in the abbot there, or abbots of local houses, judge, or bishops, or secular counts, secular rulers. The monk has a right to do this. The abbot cannot get in the way of this happening, if there's a complaint that's justifiable. But the interesting thing in this contract that they have is that the monk's obedience is a conditional obedience. The first time you run into that also, it's a conditional, that is, you can promise to obey, in fact in the contract you do that, you promise to obey as much as God gives you strength to obey, unquote. So the monk seems to have considerable personal discretion in how much God is helping him


to obey or not, and what he has to necessarily obey. And the deciding factor in this discretion is supposed to be, is it just or not? Is there justice in this? So we've had different kinds of obedience. What kind of obedience did we have in the desert of Egypt? Just to the abbot himself. Pardon? Just to the abbot himself. And with the abbot that went, right? I mean, absolutely, unconditional, absolute obedience, that's the idea. When we hit Roman monasticism or Italian monasticism, generally speaking, we find that there's a strict obedience, but it's to a father of a family, a pater familias, not a spiritual


abbot as such, but the one who's in charge, so that there's order in the community. It's just the same thing, but it's a different perspective. It's sort of like the father of the family, the elder, because that's what they had in the Roman society. At the end of the empire, the pater familias was the strong, powerful figure within the family situation. Celtic monasticism, it wasn't just absolute obedience, it was to the point of slavery or servile submission, and that was seen as a virtue. Even if it meant that because you did some little thing or you belonged to the wrong family tree, you'd get sent off for the rest of your life in a waddle boat, preaching to whomever will listen. And with the Germans, then, remember this is a Germanic, a Gothic monasticism, even


though it's in present-day Spain, it's a Gothic monasticism, it's coming from the North. And here we find the first instance of a rather critical view of obedience, that is, that it's a conditional, unconditional thing. So then, just in summation, with Gothic monasticism, there was education within the communal structure. The monastery, however, was seen more as a reformatory than a loving house of peace. I mean, it was supposed to be peace, but it's like the kind of peace one gets through lots of rules and punishments if the rules are disobeyed. Due to the Moors, who are coming just down the line, 800?


Charles Martel? Late 700s, and this is a century before what we're looking at, which is Theroses. It feels like I'm in a dentist office. This whole Gothic monasticism disappears. So it's only around for about a century. We don't know a lot about it. If you want to look at this, we have sections of Fructuosus in English in one of the series. It's in one of those patristic series in English. Interestingly enough, some of the ideas from this Gothic monasticism in Spain are going to end up down the line affecting other parts of the monastic picture, especially the kind


of Benedictine monasticism that's going to develop in the empire just down the road where there's a feeling against Roman monasticism, Roman or Italian style of Benedictine monasticism. So you've got the rule, but you don't want to live in the Roman way. And so you bring in other conditioners from other levels and other areas of the monastic spectrum. And Fructuosus is one of them. It was borrowed, interestingly enough. We'll see if this immediate thing comes back up later on. It's mainly through Benedict of Anjoun. I mentioned this last week. Benedict of Anjoun, whom we're going to treat right after we've looked at Anglo-Saxon monasticism. We're going to look at the Carolingian empire. And from then on, monasticism really takes off. Also, the Cuniacs will use sections of Fructuosus, interestingly enough, in their reform movement.


It would appear that the rules of Fructuosus, so the Complatrum and the Comunis, what is it, Regularis? Regula Comunis, the common rule, were observed in Galicia and also Portugal until the 11th century. 11th century. Even though it disappears totally in Spain where it was. Galicia. Where is Galicia? Educated guess. This was part of the late Roman empire, huh? Galicia. Guess. Gaul. Gaul, no. This is one elder. I'm hungry. You're close, right. It's Poland and Ukraine. Poland and Ukraine.


So, western, south-western, south-eastern Poland and western Ukraine. Yeah, that's the way it would be. And that was until the 11th century or the 11th century? 11th century, so 10 hundreds. They have an evidence that was used until then. After that, they don't know. But remember that even then, in other places of the empire, it's just like parts are being chosen to use. Now, here's where the rule as a whole is the rule being used in the monastery. In Poland. These are also Germanic Goths. This is Gothic monasticism, I presume. And they got it from Spain? The rules spread around. The rules were traded and spread around all over the place. If these weren't Gothic houses, they were living a Gothic monasticism. Even if they weren't founded by, you know, the Gothic monastic movement in root.


Okay, while we were down in Santa Barbara, Ezekiel found some poems on some of these old desert fathers. And I had him choose three of them to read. We'll do that and then we'll go on to Anglo-Saxon monasticism. So there's one on Abba Anthony. One on Jerome. And who's the other one on? There were three. Oh, Simeon's Dialogues. Simeon's Dialogues, okay. Yeah, sure. So John can hear. First one is St. Anthony. The Temptations of St. Anthony. Off in the wilderness, bare and level, Anthony wrestled with the devil. Once he'd beaten the devil down, Anthony turned his eyes toward town,


and pleaded his hermitage now and then to come to grips with the souls of men. Afterward, all the tales agreed. Wrestling the devil seemed to be quite real to Anthony. Now this is a British woman who's writing this. She writes a lot on saints, the lives of saints. Who is it? Phyllis McGinn. Saint Watching is one of her famous books. Simeon's Dialogues. On top of a pillar Simeon sat. He wore no mantle, he had no hat. But bears of birds sat night and day. And hardly a word did Simeon say. Under the sun of a desert sky he sat on a pillar nine feet high. When Fool and his brother came round to admire him, he raised it another nine feet higher. The season circled about his head. He lived on water and the crusts of bread, or so one hears,


from Pilgrim's Store for thirty years and a little more. And why did Simeon sit like that, without a garment, without a hat, in a holy rage for the world to see? It puzzles the age. It puzzles me. It puzzled many a desert father. And I think it puzzled the good Lord, rather. That was for you, Terry, since you were puzzled by Stylane. No. The Thunderer. God's angry man, his crotchety scholar, was Saint Jerome, the great name called, who cared not a dime for the laws of the labour, and in his spare time translated the Bible. Quick to disparage all joys while learning, Jerome thought marriage better than burning. But didn't like women's painted cheeks, didn't like Romans, didn't like Greeks, hated pagans for their pagan ways,


yet doted on Cicero all his days. A born reformer, cross and gifted, he sculpted mankind sterner than swift did. Words to save the world from the heathen led to a cave for peace to breathe in. Promptly wherewith, for miles around, he filled the air with fury and sound. In a mighty prose for almighty ends, he thrust at his foes, quarreled with his friends, and served his master, though with complaint. He wasn't a pastor sort of saint, but he swelled men's minds with a Christian lemon. It takes all kinds to make up heaven. Thank you. Here's another map for you. This particular map is going to look at some of the more important houses that we have


eventuating now in England, under Anglo-Saxon monasticism. So the beginning years of, the early centuries of Anglo-Saxon monasticism in England. Now remember, again, this is not the only monasticism that's going to be in England. We've had the Celtic houses there already in parts of England. We have the Celtic monasticism already there, mostly in the north. Okay. What's the situation? We have to go back to Italy, huh? Because that's where the Anglo-Saxon mission comes from. That's where the English mission starts with Pope Gregory. Our own San Gregorio of Ceglio was his family home. Let's go back. In 580, in the year 580,


Monte Cassino is destroyed by the Lombards. By the way, St. Robin was a Lombard. Down the road, but he was a Lombard. His father was a Lombard duke. So Monte Cassino is destroyed, and the monks got away and fled to Rome, and they carried their regula, monastery, with them to Rome. They were given a house and a church in the city of Rome by the Pope. Other fleeing communities also ended up in Rome at this time. I mean, these people were losing their monasteries.


They were being burned down and destroyed by Roman bands of barbarians at this point. We're back into the 6th century now, late 6th century. Is this Gregory the Great? Well, I don't know if it's his predecessor who first takes them in. I don't have Gregory the Great's years here. I mean, I know when the mission is, but if we're back at 580, I don't know if Gregory's in charge yet. It might be his predecessor. Probably. It's the Pope. Yeah, yeah. Because he's the one who's going to use them. Others, other communities are fleeing


their houses, which are being destroyed, and they're either going to Rome or they're moving south, where it's safer. The barbarians are coming from the north, where are you going to go? And they're going to communities in the south and filling up their ranks just to stay monastic. Gregory the Great, at this point, founds the monastery of St. Andrew. He did that before he was Pope, so it was his predecessor who took the monks in. He's the person in charge of taking care, he's the social worker for the Pope, head deacon, archdeacon, and he's taking care of the poor right now and distributing alms. He turns his family estate on the Chilean Hill into St. Andrew's. Now, our church there is St. Andrew's.


The monastery is San Gregorio, but the church itself is dedicated to St. Andrew. You'll see that when you go there. St. Andrew is predominant there in the church. And at this time, while he's got a monastery, some of these monks ended up with Gregory in his house. He starts a monastic life. There's all kinds of monks now, Benedictines, stranded, exiled in the city of Rome. They've lost their monasteries. At this time in history, they don't know what to do with all these monks, especially the ones who are priests, so the Benedictine monks take over the parishes in Rome. They take over the churches. Also now, during the next couple centuries, we have a whole succession of, for the most part,


monastic pope after monastic pope after monastic pope. Popes keep getting elected out of the monastic ranks. During the 7th and 8th centuries, there were about 60 basilicas we know of that were staffed by Benedictine monks. I'll say Benedictine monks. You still can't say Benedictine monks at this time. We don't have a Benedictine order. But a lot of these were disciples of Benedictine. Others weren't, as such. For the most part, then, if you look at their situation, they're running parishes and churches in Rome, whereas they had been out in the country in their monasteries living a monastic life, for the most part, as Benedict had legislated, or similar situations. What changes? They've become totally urban now and pastoral. What drops out, besides cloister, let's say?


Work. Work, period. Manual labor, period, drops out of this picture. For this situation in Rome. What is it replaced by in the mentality of monasticism at this time? Other than the pastoral work, which is work, too? Scholarship and... What else do you do in your life? The office and scholarship, or the office and study, become, in their minds, the work referred to in the rule. Remember, they brought the rule with them. Thank God they brought the rule with them, their copy of the Regula. This ended up, if I'm not mistaken, in the Vatican archives. This particular rule that they brought with them. It's one of the early, if not the earliest, codex they have of Benedict's rule.


It was almost destroyed if they hadn't taken it with them. So, monasticism is changing at this point in Italy. It's grown very, very close to the papacy and the power structure. Monks being more and more involved in apostolic endeavors, active work, an urban mentality, and outside the urban situation, then, the perspective becomes not so much of longing to get back into your politics as one generation when that's gone, remembering what the old days were like and generations weren't all that long in the 6th century and 7th century. Most people did not live all that long. In no time at all, people didn't remember what the foundation was like. The ones who had originally come from there had died off.


So the mentality regarding outside the urban situation was it became a missionary one. So if you're going to found monasteries and stuff, it's in a missionary perspective. Also realize that outside these cities, who's settled down but all these barbarians who have taken the place over and destroyed everything. Now, a couple of generations down the line, they're homesteading and developing a society and whatnot. But their blood is the barbarian blood. This isn't new in the sense that we don't even know in Benedict's monastery he had Goths there. We know that he had barbarians. It's just that this was one of those times when some of the more fiercer more fiercer some of the fiercer tribes came through and did some nasty stuff. The Lombards were one of those groups. Well, Gregory


decided that he wanted to bring this Anglo-Saxon or the Anglo-Saxons those tribes, those into the church because they hadn't been evangelized yet. And so in 596 he sends his prior. So the prior from what is now our monastery San Gregorio. The prior of that monastery, Augustine, he sends him on the mission. Augustine, by the way, is going to die in the year 604, so he doesn't have much time ahead of him. He only has eight more years of life. With him, Augustine didn't want to go by the way. He did under obedience but he did not want to do this. He also took along with him 40 monks. There are lots of monks in Rome right now.


Lots of monks. They can easily let 40 go on this mission. Just on one hand, they're going to send a whole other truckload of them over. This was not Augustine, evidently, Gregorio's first idea. He just couldn't find anyone else that wanted to do it. This evidently wasn't his first option. And this is the one he could do by ordering it monastically. And that's how the English mission got started. Augustine and his monks, as I said, went under obedience. You can put those in bold letters. Not at all enthusiastic about this mission to England. They were used to the cloister. The cloister within an urban


environment, granted, but still a cloister. They were used to that type of life which develops a close living life which develops in a cloistered situation. They didn't know the language of the people they were going to. They went there totally without tools for this work. Nowadays, for instance, the order I was originally studying for, the crozier order, monastic, years in this school. They have missionaries in Agats, New Guinea. They've had them there for 40 years, 50 years. Way in the early times. These were the missionaries who last saw Rockefeller's son, who then disappeared in this area. They don't send anyone to the missions unless they have a doctorate in anthropology. Not all linguistics have this one.


And they've had this rule for at least 20 years. That you have to have a doctorate in anthropology. Not just study anthropology. These people didn't know the language. They're totally unprepared for this missionary activity. Which, as it turned out, worked out. Through making this house. Things just sort of fit into place more or less along the way. Probably the strongest facet about their move, this first wave, which gave them success, more than anything else, was they sent enough monks over so that some of them lived. They sent an entire community over. And so they had the community, they just plopped down and started a communal life


together. With this one doing that and these doing that. And they had up there, they structured the whole thing. They didn't have to wait. They didn't come and send one or two over and wait for native vocations. They didn't do that. They just went in and founded a large monastery. A large monastic group. During the 5th and 6th centuries what early Christianity there already was there, either through the little bit that trickled through Rome and the Roman experience, but more than that, through the Celtic Christian experience that came into England sporadically and periodically. For the most part, that was all wiped out. It wasn't totally wiped out. We're going to find pockets of it later on. But for the most part it was wiped out by the Anglo-Saxon invasions. The Anglo-Saxons were some of these barbarians


who kept moving west or getting pushed out westward by other tribes who came in and were stronger. Pockets of this original Christian experience or pockets of this early Christianity in England still existed, but Augustine wasn't able to deal with them at all because they preferred the old Celtic ways. This is totally foreign to you. I mean, they're going to have headaches galore for years now just because arguing and killing over not necessarily bishops and hierarchy but people killing one another depending on which day you signify Easter as. The big difference is going to cost hatfields and coal situations


because the Celtic system was different for figuring out when Easter was going to happen than what had developed in Western Roman church. They didn't begin by teaching. They didn't move into education situation on the English mission. What they did was they built monasteries and chanted the office regularly. And people were slowly drawn to that. They were drawn to the liturgy. And so this particular this early stage of Anglo-Saxon monasticism in England took great care for its liturgical life and how it built and decorated monastic churches because it saw that was what would draw that's what was drawing


the Anglo-Saxon people into the Christian experience in their arena. It also helped that they could convert a king or two along the way because then when the king came everybody else had to do it also. So you have the king of Canter whatever and the whole section, the whole Kentish contingent became Christian. That happened in this experience but we'll get down the line. They just lived a simple monastic life, a very liturgical monastic life at the beginning of this mission. And they concentrated on their evangelistic endeavors on the nobles. Now it's kind of funny to hear that word normal being used in the Anglo-Saxon situation this time but the powerful


ones, the kings and their henchmen and whatnot and the women who had power through the bloodline they worked on those first and they won some over and things really began to take shape because they brought entire units of land or units of the people within those lands into the church. Everyone came with the king. In the areas of Northumbria and Essex they had some small successes but it wasn't their best. Their real success areas were Sussex and Kent in the early situation of this Anglo-Saxon monasticism and so they centered most of their efforts in Kent and Sussex naturally. The northern part


of England still had a strong Celtic influence and the Anglo-Saxon missionaries, so Augustine and his descendants, monastic descendants pretty much in the first stage left that beat. The monks that went over from Rome were not so much missionary men as such but were educated with scholastics and they weren't all that interested in moving up into Northumbria and founding crates of monasteries and whatnot. The Benedictine houses they did develop, again mainly in Sussex and Kent, became great houses of education. That's who they are, that's who they were at that time. It became strong centers of not only ecclesiastical


life but because of that, cultural centers. Cultural centers within the whole Anglo-Saxon picture. The monasteries became the cultural centers. Before them, and before they were wiped out, the Celtic centers, the Celtic monastic centers were the same things. They were places where you could get an education and they were centers of culture. This isn't anything new. It was natural for them to do this. Did they adapt any of their customs when they get there? Adapted whose customs? Did they try to fit into the Anglo-Saxon culture at all? Well, over the years some of their architecture was affected by Anglo-Saxon mentality.


You'll find in every situation that if you look at the liturgical calendars for instance, you can find in any given situation and what we have left is from all kinds of experiences like Anglo-Saxon where the local deities and the local pagan chiefs are incorporated into the liturgical calendar with a saint name on it or some kind of happening that somewhat rings a bell the same way whether it's about blood or water or mountains or whatever. That's put into the calendar and we've ended up with a lot of those in our calendars. Some of them have been suppressed now where they came directly from situations like this where they were accommodated, where they were being affected by the situation that already existed. Is that the sort of thing you mean? Well, they didn't go there


with a real missionary endeavor mentality. They went there in their own obedience, in their educators. So their thing was to set up what they had but when they got there of course they didn't bring cargo planes full of whatever they needed so they had to work with what was there. They had books sent to them regularly sent to the mission and these houses became one of the interesting things about reading the letters from people like Wilfred and Boniface. They're always trading books back and forth. Half the letter is about, oh this book is great can you send me two sermons of such and such and then along the way a barrel of beer or a mead or whatever. They talk about liquor and books mainly. The


let's say second and third generations down the line, so by then we have a number of houses built in this Anglo-Saxon mission, the English mission and full communities started. We have them concentrating mainly on their liturgy for which from Rome young monks, young musician monks came from Rome to teach good chant principles to these houses because the word got back that this was bringing in, this was working, liturgy was doing it for the Anglo-Saxons. Also they concentrated on vestments precious metal vessels, altar vessels and artistic furnishings


for their churches because they saw the Anglo-Saxons were just wowed by that. In a certain way, here's another example where they might not have done this monastery in Italy but since it was working, that affected how they built churches down the line, how they decorated them, how their vestments developed because the people liked to be wowed by this stuff. And so in that sense it was a give and take type thing or adapting also but from bringing in a western Roman thing and then working with that, with native mentality of what is artistic, what's nice they had to use local artisans and all that so that's all going to be a there's a reciprocity there. Manual labor, which already in the Roman experience had disappeared manual labor here


was no longer obligatory for everybody even in this missionary situation We begin, of course, getting Anglo-Saxon converts becoming monks a lot of them are uneducated when they come in we have certain houses again making a double community or a two-level community where the ones who aren't educated are doing the manual labor while the rest is teaching this is right from the beginning if you look at English monasticism today they've got their schools, that's their thing English Benedictine monasticism right from the beginning all along also highly liturgical the whole English church is highly liturgical and as Anglicans will tell you, even low church Anglicans


and as I can point out to you in histories of spirituality the best example of a church becoming Benedictine is the Church of England because from the beginning the church was Benedictine so the whole office thing the chanting, everything and how they go about these things was incorporated into the secular for a couple centuries at least and down the line, off and on, some of the diggings are monks trades, people who joined could practice their trades but they were choir monks, they did both those who came with some education continued their education it isn't that the ones who were working didn't have any education


it's just that in some houses they had so many we have one community for instance, Canterbury that had 300 Anglo-Saxon postulants and novices and juniors, all without education so they put them to work in the beginning of their experience but then you get a if they kept them there for long, you get a class structure of course this is in strong contrast to the Celtic monastic situation everybody works manual labour everybody in Celtic monasticism in the Anglo-Saxon monasticism probably the most revered room for some probably even including the church was the library


the library and the scriptorium were just the revered rooms sacred rooms and you have abbots sending out posses that sounds too aggressive sending out scavenger groups to beg books off of other monasteries you have abbots and retinues travelling back to Italy to bring back horses and donkeys or whatever they had filled with books for their libraries and their scriptorium they ran schools at this early time they ran schools but it's a different kind of school than the Celtic monastics had been running not that that's surprising


Benedictine monasteries here rather than with the Celtic experience will take in anyone take in boys regardless of whether they're going to study to be monks or enter the monastery or not the Celtic schools for the most part were dealing with clan on clan lines and for the most part people who would become monks or high up in the power structure within the clan situation but not that it does not make the Anglo-Saxon monastic system sound perfect they were taking people in, yes, but you had to pay they weren't taking the poor in they were taking the well off you had to pay a price for the education that too sounds like contemporary English monasticism


parenthetically B is that where I am? did I skip a whole yeah, skipped a whole page not really, Wilfred Wilfred was originally educated in a Celtic monastic school at the monastery of Lindisfarne he built a monastic settlement in Northumbria, so in the north which was traditionally Celtic called Ryepond Ryepond Abbey and he was the first to bring in


some newfangled thing into the north which the monastery before that time didn't have this newfangled thing was called the R.B. the Rule of Benedict what did they have before this? the R R.N. Rule of Lindisfarne Lawrence Lawrence? we didn't we didn't have a rule of Lorraine actually but you have a rule of somebody who studied at Lorraine Cologne so you have that rule even if the places are destroyed the rule was there the mentality, the memory still is there he is very pro-Roman


he likes Roman monasticism he likes the rule of Benedict he likes the Roman way of computing when Easter is going to be and it's going to be very very important for centuries and so he is a strong advocate for Roman monasticism and Roman customs both as the abbot of Ryepond or later in the diocese of York where he becomes the Archbishop of York there are a lot of monastic Benedictine abbots who become the first bishops archbishops in this situation he spent most of his life both as a monk and as a bishop doing two things traveling, whether it's to collect books or to make foundations and courtrooms


settling disputes being sued, suing, litigation Benedict Biscop what I've got here is basically four important names from Anglo-Saxon monastics but in these early years in England itself Benedict Biscop founded those two monasteries Jarrow, who is famous for Jarrow Bede and Wormouth those two abbeys were founded by Benedict Biscop down the road, Benrobide will be abbot of Jarrow and he'll die there who else is in Jarrow?


seems to me who wrote the proslogue? Anselm of Canterbury Archbishop Canterbury was at Jarrow prior to prior to his elevation to the Episcopacy Benedict was the founder of those two monasteries he had trained at Lorraine which is interesting because there you're getting the same kind of experience the Celtics were getting in that line rather than the Roman line but though he had been trained he favored what he saw in the Roman usages and the Roman observance monastically so he made these foundations he collected more than anyone else probably although Bede is going to run a good race later on


a library, a great library which of course for Bede later on was his utter joy and delight we can contrast Roman monasticism with Lorraine Celtic so the Gallic monasticism is also different uses that early Gallican monasticism okay did I yeah I did next time I've got another map for you so we'll finish tomorrow this part of the Anglo-Saxon map system then we'll move over to the continent and see what happens over there