April 8th, 1998, Serial No. 00294

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Liturgy Class



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he picked up
new the father
creator and feeling like
get to like to all of us who love you
may our lives proclaim your goodness
we are voices sing your praise whatever endeavor
ah me

so will come her to
just a bit of a review from how we started last week
as i mentioned we when discussing liturgy the hours most the documents you read start out with a pretty broad discussion of christian prayer in general even more so than you would find in a celebration of the eucharist
so we discussed last week first of all the prayer of jesus this whole notion of jesus praying to his god
second of all this notion that the apostles than passed on his formula for how to pray as jesus prayed especially the urgings of st paul to never stop trying can pray constantly and address gave us all these themes that we pray
in the holy spirit that we pray through christ this line from hebrews through him let us continually offer gotta sacrifice of praise so pagans as these themes urgent prayer con urgent constant prayer praying through christ in the holy spirit
the second part of the biggest part of what we discussed last week this notion of christ's prayer being continued by the church
by virtue of this holy spirit being planted as the same prayer of crisis continued the church then takes on these three beautiful roles their discussed in the general instruction and illusions the hours the church as priest this is the exercise of our priesthood we become christ the priest
when we pray the church as bride it is are some with and to our beloved
and third of all the church as mother i like that were whole the church as mother caring for her children who bringing the needs of the whole world to prayer that's what we do with together for prayer we are church as a mother caring for all of creation
we then discussed as
just briefly the dialogical nature of the rigid the hours which is meant to model the dialogical nature of our whole relationship with god it's not a one-way street so
in all of our liturgies sometimes we listen sometimes we respond goes back and forth back and forth specifically in village of the hours so some of it is singing to gods of it is listening to god and i mentioned there that notion that somebody can be taken either way it will see that as we go out in the history of monastic tradition stuff
fonds de ce samedi as listening whereas the cathedral tradition tends to see somebody as offering prayers so i mentioned just a few things about the difference between the cathedral and the monastic will see these grow out of two different places but they really start out together
separate come back together to service tyrosine tyrosine benedict separate and come back together but generally one could say to make a broad sweep as a cathedral tradition has a tendency to seek of the liturgy the hours as speaking to god and the monastic tradition has a tendency to think of this village
eight hours as listening to god being receptive to god
the last part of this introduction which was segway then right into our opening salvo into history as i explained last week what we're going to be doing is
taking a quick tour through the history of the church in a sense
to see how the liturgy the ours was prayed in different eras and then as soon as possible focusing specifically on monastic traditions to give us some kind of a sense first of all monastic history second of all how this pair has been integrated into monastic life through the centuries and i gave the apology or last weekend
upstate one more time with and i want apologise anymore history is not my absolute best subjects so if i make some mistakes along the way we'll have plenty of people who know it well enough to correct me i just as to do a one tapes on the fence of heavy if it really is that glaring but i hope i'll make up for some of that with my
but let's talk about this notion of consecration of time
so as we heard in the as we read through these documents last week this
from the general section the to the hours and jesus himself and certainly st paul pick this up an echoed it taught this necessity of praying at all times that's the important foundation to keep
the urge is to pray at all times
without losing heart
rejoice always never stop train offer constant thanks
and the church is called to be faithful to this exhortation as we again we heard last week to read to those documents this is of the very essence of what it means to be church is to be praying all the time is to be praying constantly it's our job and as if we got more specific last week especially the
those who are specifically mandated to do so and then at the end of the at the end of the document it said as i read this is especially true of those who follow the contemplative life
this is our job is what we're here for to pray constantly so when we start dividing the day up into little bits and pieces let's never lose track of that the emphasis is always on praying constantly
church never ceases to offer prayer
and we do this
not only by the celebration of the eucharist this is what the general instruction on the bg the hours once the plane out because we tend to be pretty focused on the eucharist as not only the main but somehow the only source of prayers at church a vatican two is trying to open this up and to reading introduced to
the people of god this whole other way of praying
but this is especially true to the liturgy of the hours now what distinguishes the liturgy the hours from other liturgical actions what distinguishes the liturgy the hours from sacramento actions
is that is is specifically designed so that it consecrated to god the cycle of day and night
as it started to do from the very beginning
the eucharist is not fixed to a certain time of day none of the sacraments are fixed to that they sort of stand above time therein cairo's the luigi the hours are specifically kronos their chronological they fit in with the cycle of the day and night and we use this phrase off
and by sanctifying the whole day it also sanctifies the whole range of human activities so let's talk about this notion of consecrating the consecration of time where the sanctification of time
one of the reasons i like this particular theme is it against dress how incarnational we are
we're not above created things and time as a created thing we're not above time but time is our tool time as our instrument god is revealed through time we pray we worship we go back to god through time it's very incarnational
we follow the liturgical year we follow the solar calendar for some things we follow the lunar calendar for some things i'm watching up the skylight in my cabin right now this big fat mood and remembering from my class on the liturgical year that that's the same moon that jesus looked at it
the garden of yosemite right now this is this is why we're celebrating eastern now because the moon is where it is and as big as it is and somehow that gives me a little buzz every time that easter is fixed on that lunar calendar around the passover and that's the moon that jesus was looking at knowing it was time to celebrate
this feast
so we believe in that that's a holy thing
we follow that time because we're incarnational people the seasons teach us something about god
but very much more specifically also the day itself teaches us something about god

now by sanctifying the whole day the document says what our prayer does is sanctify all of our activity
which sanctifies are rising it sanctifies the sunset it sanctifies are going to bed that sanctifies i work in mid midday
this is the reason why i was so important in the reform of vatican two to bring to revise the structure of the lose you the hours so that the hours were celebrated when they were supposed to be celebrate now we don't have that experience and if you've never saw good liturgy of the hours before this may not be part of your com
and experience but let me take a story
in an appreciative breviary that the story i had the picture i haven't my head as the priest
reading his bravery in the headlights because he had to get all his prayers and and he hadn't said his prayers yet in the he was in home yet that that would be before even your time i suppose wouldn't it it's no i'm happy for your time because it was a mandate that you had to say the whole office every day so what are you talking about your
talking about the priest at ten o'clock at night saying morning prayer you know as if the important thing was to say the prayer none of the know the important thing was that it was morning prayer not just that the pair's be said but we were left with the impression at that a before the before the the important thing was to get those prayers and na
necessarily the sanctification of the morning so it doesn't this they do any good to say lots at noon the whole point is to sanctify that morning is to consecrate that morning by saying morning prayers they see what i'm saying he other story about that years on for the lucian desk who i've had the honor curve localism
and i'm one of the panels that was doing the revisions of the liturgy in the very early sixty four john the twenty third died even
and in those days we'll talk about the little hours now there's terse sex than known which are roughly cool that nine o'clock twelve o'clock at three o'clock but in the old the it was the hour of prime which is a a kind of up an additional hour that didn't make a whole lot of sense because it almost did the same thing that lodz did and they
we're discussing in this these high powered litigious were discussing suppressing the hour of prime which eventually did get suppressed and they're having their meeting it was nine o'clock in the morning for the desk tells the story and the holy father good humble pope john the twenty third walks in and learn
the my you like while this causing and he said well holy father were discussing the possibility of suppressing the hour of prime he said now why would you wanna do that and he's well we're trying to make it more convenient so people can actually celebrate the hours when they need to be he says hawaii you can do that look he says eibar
ready set by whole office for the day with nine o'clock in the morning and he had already said night prayer and there are thinking he adds how equality and it's exactly what return him to go but it's so that the whole point of this office is it supposed to celebrate those hours of the day
i suppose i've made that plane clear enough at this time
now let's go back in this notion i told you never to let go of what we're doing this misses the notion of unceasing prayer we'll see in a little bit even gregory of nyssa was fighting against this notion of consecrating certain times of the day why well because you're supposed to be praying all ways
so why would you want to stop and consecrate certain hours but right away as the haggling is going on when we have to keep in mind these little hours are meant to be first of all an impetus toward unceasing prayer like a so like a short of a fuel stop you might say
to keep the prayer going but also i think of them in terms of like a speed bump to slow one down remind one of ones prayer
but lads do keep this notion of unceasing prayer in mind
at the same time
there can be something misleading about this phrase the consecration of time the sanctification of time the sanctification at the day
it does not mean
that the liturgy of the hours makes secular time holy
it does not mean that
but it means to suggest that at certain times of day what the quality of all time should be time is for us already a holy thing
we're sanctifying our day were sanctified pemba were really doing is we're recognizing it's sanctity and were pointing out at certain times of day the holiness that the whole day should have you see what i'm saying this is where it's bleeding right into this idea of unceasing prayer not that said
one o'clock as any holier than nine o'clock because we pray at it but seven o'clock every month we remind ourselves that time is a holy thing that god works through and we respond back to god
this is right from the general instruction then
but that liturgy suggests at certain times of the day what the quality of all time should be that all time should be an experience which is sacramental that all time should be an experienced its regulatory of the mystery of christ that all times should be a means of union with god in christ and through cr
lodz at vespers for instance focus on or aluminate critical moments of the day pointing out that these critical moments of the day reveal certain aspects of the mystery of christ specifically dying and rising
by reminds us that this dying and rising are not just limited to the morning but put that dying and rising that pascoe mystery into the fabric of our entire day just because remember dying and night and rising in the morning doesn't mean that we only guy
at night rise in the morning but it puts that pascoe mystery into the day and the sort of lays that framework of our whole day so our whole day as consecrated to the pascoe mystery and these mysteries
it's what authors as suffuse the whole day i always find it interesting they walk through the kitchen and hear somebody humming in addison from lodz and and didn't do to hope that the realize that that somehow maybe even that som as staying with somebody for me alive
from a son will stay with me sometimes your part of the day and that's that's always a wonderful thing that's what it's meant to do it's meant to stay to the whole day is one of the reasons why i keep pushing this
china be a little quieter after the hours so that we can have this gentle transition and not lose what we've built up for our environment to take it out into the day than discredited into the day and it into the night
so the liturgy the hours sanctified time this is another author i can name know where i got this from
the liturgy the hours sanctifies time in this sense that the liturgy the hours encourage us to see time as sacred all moments of the day can be sacramental expressions of the mystery of christ's dying and rising
before i left that one go i want to court you from aden canada i think we use this in the first part of the introduction to hear you speaking about to liturgical year but again this notion of the sanctification of time
the liturgy thus does not sanctified time
time is a wholly creature with which the liturgy which one in meaningful touch
with which can use this is a preposition in the right place their time as a wholly creature with which the liturgy puts one in meaningful touch
once in touch with it as marking the implacable unfolding of divine purpose one is able to perceive it's true nature to be not an endless succession of bear moments but that time is a purposeful thrust home toward its holies source times
sacredness is not imposed by liturgical version
liturgical worship discovers that sacredness and summons the assembly to take part in that sacredness this means that the liturgy needs time rather than that the time needs liturgy i really liked that a lot i liked the notion that we in our liturgical ah
algae or sacramental theology recognize are ready the sacredness of what god has created and recognize this fact that we enter into what god has created that god is revealed through that and we responded that it takes me back to our other class on father five g
if coded correctly
i can't okay let's move
i'll figure out next week and bring it to did you all get that little piece of paper i slipped in your mailbox
i just thought that was wonderful my friend patrick and alaska i told her about i'd send him that quote from st augustine that i read you last week from liturgy the hours and he said that back
to claim that when christ praise within us all those with christ are also praying with us that reflects an experience experience not just and devout abstraction
the segway that here is in into
to dive into the history of that
some only a few
authors like to point back
to the hebrew roots of our celebration of the litter gp hours but just given the fact that some did i thought it might be interesting too because we don't spend very much time talking about our our ancestors in the faith
and some scholars like to claim that there's a direct continuity first of all between the primitive christian communal prayers so christianity right around the time of christ and the jewish synagogue or temple practices and is now
whole lot evidence for it but there's enough to suggest that there might have been some and we can pretty much assume at the first that the apostles and jesus himself were taking place in the prayer life of the jews so let's start there
here's it often named vilma little who wrote a book called the sacrifice of praise which ah
came out in the fifties but she made a big deal about this which she traces what she calls word worship by the sacrifice of praise
let me say why this is important
under mosaic law and certainly before most worship of god is not done through any kind of vocal worship most worship of god is done through sacrifice when could think to hear of the roots of of the
hindu faith to the drip visit the davidians their first the beginning of their faith was all sacrificial before they get into any kind of word worshipped so word worship does not start for the hebrew people right off the bat it's all sacrifice sacrificial offerings the whole notion that you don't necessarily have to offer a sacrifice comes a
little later but i thought runaway of some fifty which i love so much we don't have it anywhere in our cycle of songs
i need no bullock from your house no goats from your phone for every animal the forest as mind beasts by the thousands of my mountains i know every bird of heaven
do i eat the flesh as bulls do i drink the blood of goats
offer know the next where it is offer praise as your sacrifice fulfill yoga vows to the most high then you will call it how of distress i will rescue offer praise as your sacrifice this is a startling notion that praise
can be the sacrifice that's offered instead of a bull or a goat it we run into that phrase all the time and a lot of the songs but i wonder if we catch the important sites offer praise as a sacrifice our whole the surgical theology is based on a line like that the
sacrifice that we offer every day at mass is the sacrifice of praise that's how we enter into that one sacrifice for full our sacrifice this is not how the hebrew
how hebrew theology started out there was that notion of expiation and propitiation through offering the first fruits of grade through slaughtering a goat is tottering a bull
but even under mosaic even up to the time of moses there's very little trace of this sacrifice of praise or what she calls word worship worshipping of god through word
but it is to moz's that we owe the first spontaneous outbursts of vocal worship which were then woven into the tragic a worship later it's funny that i never thought of that before we didn't have any prayers before that but we have the famous prayer
in exit is fifteen which will saying
in these divisional i think it's the second responsorial psalm it's also not know regular curses but you might recognize it
after the destruction of the egyptians
moses in the israelites sang this song to the lord i will seem to the lord for his gloriously triumphant horse and chariot he has cast into the see my strength and my courage of the lord and he has been my saviour he is my god i praise him the god of my father ix
stole him the lord is a warrior lord is his name pharaoh's chariots and army he hurled into the sea and it goes i we sing that with refrain was ah ha no hosanna going lawrence by hand and child but this is the first evidence we have a a spontaneous outburst of were
word prayer of word praise the sacrifice of praise
we have another one for moses deuteronomy thirty two now this one i'm proud to say has gotten snuck in slacked has gotten snuck sneaked into our office this as we sing it saturday morning lodz week to i think give you a heavens while i speak
after the joshua's commissioned in the laws placed in the art there's the song of moses give hero heavens while i speak that the earth hear the words of my mouth or my instructions soak in like the rain my discourse permeate like the dude like a downpour upon the grass like a shower upon the seedlings you recognize that song
i'm so we have these first two evidences of vocal worship happening from the hebrew people
there's also a tradition at least that moses is responsible for some ninety but i'm aiming to read afraid because the evidence is pretty scant about that
but let's leap ahead to david now course david is the somme king you know so many sounds attributed to him
but the first thing and this comes from this film a little again and and i had to do some pretty heavy reading between the lines but it certainly makes some sense to be at first chronicle fifteen and sixteen
after the transfer of the art and the david's set up in jerusalem and the ark is brought to jerusalem and set up
and when david established
in jerusalem is an evening and morning and an evening service of praise to follow after the morning and the evening sacrifice that was appointed by moses now this evening said this morning and evening sacrifices are very important to
ah you know in some one forty where we sing the little refrained from it every year feast day the lifting of my hands but cynics line like like an evening sacrifice what's being said there that somehow
how me lifting up my hands in prayer is equivalent to having offered a sacrifice this if this is a very subtle but important point theology the lifting of my hands like the evening sacrifice
is the sacrifice of praise well david established that there would be a sacrifice of praise offered morning and evening and he arranged for em
and that going to read the whole chapter to you but anyway he arranged for a regular courses of singers to be giving praise continuously day after day each course of the week rotation
beginning their service on the sabbath so so he appointed levi's to minister is that there's a whole images reaches some of its you get an idea
so then david summon the priest zada can i bfr that levi's area saya joe shama illegal and a nem tabs you gotta really fast you don't get caught and said to them you that heads of the levitical families but sanctify yourselves along with your brethren and bring up the art which i prepared
accordingly the preseli by sacrifice themselves or bring up the arc levi's arc of his shoulder david commanded the chiefs of the levites to appoint their brethren as chanters to play a musical instruments harps and liars and symbols to make a loud sound of rejoicing therefore the levi to put in heavens and of john it has been enabled lives as whole thing about all
different people who are gonna be offering the chance and chance set on liars they even have the name of the hymn tune julio lead the chant a liar set to the eighth
chennai was the chief and the levites enchanting and directed the chanting for he was skillful para kaja and l a kind of where the keepers of the art anyway this whole thing is laid out the way she's got it figured out she figures out that there are four thousand singers distributed in twenty four courses with two hundred and eighty teachers teaching this
songs that a heck of a chad practice on sunday mornings there
claims that this is the source our source for the divine office others were back her up on this because the dawn and the evening were consecrated and dedicated to public worship surrounding the sacrifice
but having an efficacy of their own right
the daily services than in solomon's temple when he finally built a temple where the same and from the temple in jerusalem this is the practice built a little claims that spread out to the synagogues throughout palestine and the do spoil so when there is a place where they can't offer sacrifice because
is only sacrifice could only be offered in jerusalem they would do this sacrifice in praise of praise instead thus you have the lifting of my hands like the eating sacrifice
so he was already consecrating the morning and the evening to god by means of his sacrifice this parallel practice of the sacrifice of praise is growing up next to it
when we can no longer offer a sacrifice what we can do is offer this sacrifice of praise
there's some speculation that does morning and evening tefillah our the been addictions eventually meant also them to record to correspond to this morning evening prayer in a at now the another scholar right followed much more and this is robert taft the he claims
that there's little evidence to support a single are parallel tradition that's gonna go ryan's and the new testament but but there's kind of a mixed pattern but there's no doubt that there were several
practices of daily prayer prevalent in palestine the egyptian and he in palestinian and egyptian judaism jude and can't get any of these words out
there were no doubt several practices of daily prayer prevalent in both palestinian and egyptian judaism around the time of the new testament it was something going on
more likely it was something like this fold recitation of the shama morning and evening
which interest in rabbinical circles then got
joined to their own practice the rabbinical practice of threefold daily private prayer an additional prayer was added on to the ninth hour so morning evening in at the ninth hour which would be like three o'clock
do you know about this share my if you don't know it it's it's a beautiful thing in deuteronomy six for it marked
is the great commandment if you are follow the regular cycle of compliment this is the reading for compline on
first first bet first komplett of sunday like yes saturday night
hear o israel the lord is god the lord alone therefore you shall love the lord your god with all your heart with all your soul with all your strength take to heart these words which i enjoin on you today drill them into your children speak of them at home and abroad with you are busy or at rest listen carefully
lee bind them on your wrist as a sign let them be a pendant on your forehead
write them on the door posts of your houses and on your gates this is the shame are was combined with the decalogue and this would be recited
twice daily morning and evening this is a practice of for sure we know is happening around their testament times and in good observant jews
now this injunction those last things that i said pay attention to gave rise to the selector is some of the factories also known as they're also called tefillin aren't they called tefillin themselves after the predictions
and there's three so we have by them as a sign in your hand fix them an emblem on your forehead right of a door posts of your house and your gates so what developed from this is
a pouch that would carry this very text it would be worn on the hand and other ones strapped around word on the forehead when pray this prayer and the third is that thing called the mezuzah which would be wrapped in this this scroll would be wrapped in an attached right to the lintel i think
as to the rights the right door post to the house
this was the great jewish confession of faith
in a sense you could say it's more of a creed that it was a prayer specifically
but that it was recited at least twice daily
so then you have this other thing growing up in in rabbinical circles now the rabbinical circles are specifically growing up outside of jerusalem the synagogue tradition is growing up stronger outside of jerusalem to because it's replacing going to the temple offering sacrifice this is where we're going to inherit much more than the
sacrificial theology of judaism
so in the rabbinical circles they are the threefold traditional ben addictions prayers three times daily one in the morning one of the evening the one in the morning and the one evening would then be combined with this recitation of the shame up both in private or in public synagogue service
since both it can be done both in and outside of jerusalem
in the morning this tefillah is benediction tefillah think it would say i correctly as close as i can get in the morning this tefillah would be preceded by to bed addictions of thanksgiving for creation and the revelation and then concluded always with the benediction of thanks
giving for
redemption from egypt chris you if you remember correctly this is always something is going to be in the hebrew mind the main emphasis for giving thanks is the fact that god delivered whole nation on of egypt's is constantly moving so it's remember it every morning and the evening the tefillah other benediction they recite the recitation the show
is combined with the prayer for rest
these two specifically became the principal times in the day for communal or private prayer than for the observant huge and we're pretty sure this is going on
at the time of the first christians
now the jews again right around the time of the beginning of the new testament their prayer is taking place really in three different venues in three different places
first of all in the temple
second of all in the synagogue during the fall in the home
well we could talk about right now specifically the first jewish christians so the apostles the immediate disciples

so the new testament christians were said to be
luke twenty four fifty three constantly
do you have ever lived
constantly in the term exactly right there at the end when we're after the ascension he led them the balcony any idea fifty two they did him homage returned to choose them with great choice for seventy three and they were continually in the temple praising god
actually the apostles i i wrote this went right down day after day they spent much time together in the temple they broke bread at home and ate their food with glad and generous hearts praising god and having a good will of the people
but it is also some evidence especially in acts that they were becoming right away a separate group within the temple but they were in the temple
the first jewish christians secondly they were in the synagogue jesus himself as in the synagogue a lot we saw that
here's from acts thirteen
but they went up to persia and came to antioch in peace cydia and on the sabbath day they went into the synagogue and sat down after reading the law and the profits the officials of the synagogue sent them a message saying brothers if you have a word of exhortation for the people give it so past it up
and with a gesture began to speak so the first jews christians are praying in the synagogue they could be praying just what i would i mentioned here this twofold morning and evening prayer it's not completely clear we have scant evidence of this era what corporate synagogue traer comprised during the
during this era or even how many days it was taking place
it seems course we have look describing jesus taking part in some of this himself but it seems that there were public synagogue services at least on market days which would have been monday and thursday
and on the sabbath so on saturday so it seems they were public synagogue services three times a week and on those days there were perhaps a course is all conjecture but it's just nice to try to build someone of a picture even with speculation perhaps for services now morning
would probably the ninth hour to be equivalent to three o'clock and the evening
it certainly the services in the morning and evening will be combined with the reading of mishima and these tefillah which were said both in public and private
now it appears that the early christians also soon started forming synagogues of their own were they doing there were not quite sure but you know in the letter to james
which has written to jewish converts around forty nine fifty
and he refers to your synagogue so they are either forming a synagogue over their own most likely we think where they could have been still part of the one of the community but it seems pretty specifically your synagogue they had in their own
and then of course the third values we have the temporary of the synagogue the third is the home and were much surer ground here just more evidence that folks first of eyes i have mentioned this shame on the tefillin home these first jewish christians
so the first christians continue to frequent the daily services that they were used to and then later observed them in their own gathering we can conclude that perhaps keeping the same songs and prayers but certainly right away began adding in christian elements all the canticles that way
we sing in the evening prayer here you know come right from scripture and our our first evidence of them creating specifically christian prayers specifically christian hymns so they may be doing their jewish prayers but very early on they start creating the
their own specifically hymns to christ songs to christ prayers to christ
but the first evidence we have i remember that choice from studying music of christian music there's a historian named heidi the younger
spoke of the christians as singing hymns of praise to god to christ as god as the first evidence we know that the credit christians are making up specific with their own music we have no idea what it sounded like
i think i can close up shop there were just close up at this so
one author vilna little as claiming that we're getting this practice of praying
morning and evening prayer
from our hebrew ancestors another often like taft the same there's not a real direct lineage they're even of this recitation of the shama new tefillah but that what we did get from them as a practice just that they did it we didn't this so inherit their structure their form but just that they did it if there's any parentage it's in there
what we're gonna see developed now it's preview for next week is two different traditions within the christian community one is the prayer at morning and evening and the second one smaller with it is his prayer in the little hours during the day and that's a real convenient place for
meet to stop at this point so glory be to the father to son to the home sphere as it was getting his shot me we're gonna die
a slice
the son the holy spirit
god our father by raising christ your son you conquered the power of death and open for us the way to eternal life
today raise us up and we knew our lives by that same spirit and is with humans to christ online
so good morning
this is class number three
and we're going to heavy and to talk about the specifically christian prayer of the early days we actually the apostles and then move all the way up to the second third century again kind of a broad sweep of history here and that concentrating too much on the exact details
try to get some sense of how this practice in the liturgy the hours developed
how is practice through news so that's what we talked about our jewish roots
i'm especially love the recitation of the seamus i was glad we got to talk about that last week and we see how there was some kind of practice of vocal worships starting around the time of moses but up until then the jews only were practicing sacrifice there was no
vocal worship vocal praise so this notion of sacrifice of praise that vocal worship could actually be a sacrifice is a relatively new thing for them sorry developed for certainly around the time of king david and then the later prophets spoke about a very vehemently
i'm a parent than the time of the first christians are the time of jesus we see this to folder threefold practice of daily prayer developing among the hebrews and the sacrifice in the temple morning evening as well
well as when people couldn't be at the temple this practice as synagogue worship perhaps three days a week but also the private prayer the jews two times a day in rabbinical titians three times a day
certainly some people claim as i was reading from villa little the dance and our exact anne's ancestry is these jewish practices another author was i think considered rude one of the preeminent now robert attacked as jay says what they did
is not the influence the fact that they did something is the influence but the delivered to the hours that we have really comes from a purely gentile foundation so we just don't know but there's all that are background and it's good to celebrate i think
well we're going to see the about now in the specifically christian europe
yes two different things to different traditions are going to develop what is going to be this prayer at morning and evening and the others going to be this prayer throughout the day the little hours and these two traditions are going to go up simultaneously and eventually combine but there are two different today
oceans to begin with
the acts of the apostles describes communal prayer as the chief activity of the church in its early days it's what christians were known by they were known by the fact that they prayed together a lot continually here's three different quote
from the acts of the apostles acts one fourteen all of these were constantly devoting themselves to prayer
point where their constant acts two forty two they devoted themselves to the apostles teaching and fellowship to the breaking of bread and the prayers x twelve you'd remember the story when peter is in prison while peter was kept in prison the church prayed fervently to god for him
then after his realized he's released soon as you realize this he went to the home of house of mary the mother of john whose or the name was mark where many had gathered and we're praying so it all insignificant moments where find the christians are gathered together praying community
what we are again read through the actually apostles what we we tend to real what we tend this m we come to realize about these early christians is it whether they're alone whether they got the i gathered together every time is an opportunity for prayers this is where st paul's urgings are coming from pray constantly devote yourself
if the constant thanks rejoice always
so according to the new testament especially same paul constant daily prayers characteristic of these earliest christians and i think i've mentioned this ready last week for example someone like a clement of alexandria takes pause notion that we should pray constantly and uses that to say so
we shouldn't be praying it fixed ours in the day used to point is to pray constantly and remember i'm asked me to keep that in your mix
both and we can will come to see how these celebration of movie the areas can actually be an impetus toward constant prayer like a fuel stop and not in europe hope it's not meant to be an interruption of it
ah cross reference to the third class of the introduction between private public prayer
so for some the development of this litres of the hours i clement of alexandria seems to be an
a movement away from constant prayer whereas for others the exit taishan to pray constantly lead specifically to the development of but we call the of the hours
i talk a little bit about first of all the literature d m the little hours because they get mentioned all the time and even in the general instruction on there that are gb hours they mentioned this idea of praying at the third sixth and ninth hour this is another little side tradition it's not something we pray
actus here together very often except once a month and wreck day but it is part of the liturgy the hours in a very important part this idea of laws and vespers being the hinge moments with this three six and ninety nine twelve and three the other set times and very much in the monastic tradition as fan
terse sex and known
as for three sixty nine so in the acts of the apostles we see the apostles praying at the third sixth and ninth hour thought i had all these mark that ceiling and fine
x two one
and five which of course is
when they were when the time for penny cost was fulfilled they were all in one place together and what time was it
where's fifteen after peers whole speech and there are accusing them being drunk as are speaking in tongues peter says these people are not drunk as you suppose for is only nine o'clock in the morning ah if there's terse when i am would see the sixth hour
ten nine
the next day this is the the vision of peter in the vision of cornelius there's two putative to visions in
the integration of the gentile mission in chapter ten of acts the next day while they were on their way and nearing the city peter went up to the roof terrace to pray at noon ah and then cornelius a hot here we go
so than the ninth hour acts three
this isn't crew knew that this is when they're healing the crippled beggar but time was it now peter and john were going to the temple area for the three o'clock hour of prayer
that these three little thing that may seem really it's new the other one is is cornelius has a has a vision also announced at three o'clock he's three three things are mentioned over and over again why i bring them up is the church fathers that would use those three matches as proof texts for why you should be praying at nine o'clock
twelve o'clock and three o'clock or at the third the sixty ninth hour that has stayed so much a part of our tradition those three little stories that if you ever look at tuesday daytime prayer in the regular liturgy the hours
nowadays the reform of the gdr as you only have to pray one of the one of the daytime offices and you can either use it for mid morning midday mid afternoon they offer three different readings after each of those readings is a prayer while tuesday has the three prayers all powerful and
living god in mid-morning you point out the holy spirit as a constant friend and guide to your apostles said that same spirit to us at midday prayer the prayer is oh god you made known to peter the desire to save all nations and midday mid afternoon father you sent your angel to cornelius to show the way
a to salvation so refers back to those three events in the acts of the apostles so that tradition stays with us and the church fathers and the dock in the general instruction liturgy areas points always back to those three things as loose in the loosest sense proof texts that there was a tradition of three six
and nine being time to prayer for the church and in addition to that
yeah i'm
an x sixteen and also in second corinthians there is evidence that the disciples were imitating jesus in keeping vigil and am praying at night praying on night long
around sixty five ideas when the permanent split came between the synagogue and the christian churches and synagogue and christians and it is at least this much of a historical fact that by the year sixty five we do know whether these three times a day
our carved in stone it seems to be that those two periods of time where daily set apart from both vocal worship for the christian community by the year sixty five when the when the synagogue in the christians may their split scholars think that
by this time to services of vocal praise were fixed in traditional as christians forms of worship no not as jewish forms of worship and for several centuries these are going to stand out as the only official hours of public worship
now when i say that i mean not only were the three six and nine
not considered official yet but also while we tend to think so much of the eucharist of the mass of the main form of communal prayer this is going to be
an official hour of prayer in a sense more more important than the eucharist as a fixed official our prayer as it fixed official time appear on it's the main folks main source of communal prayer for for many and
people in popular religiosity and we tend to think of it is that as the center of our spirituality which it is by what's interesting to note is that the liturgy the hours in whatever form it took was much more frequent and as we shall see in a couple of hundred years terrifically require
wired that christians would meet for this morning prayer is evening prayer now liturgy ours is going to become more clerical and we kind of become more monastic and folks are going to start drifting to a different kinds of devotional practices
not unlike what really happened the eucharist that it became less assessable to the common folk
but from the start this is meant to be prayer the people
and the this of course is will see much later on is one of the main pushes the vatican two to reinvigorate this type of pair is a prayer for all people
so already in the yeah there's a a a collection of writings called the apostolic constitutions they were actually collected in the fourth century
but it was
he was a purports to be a summary of the teachings of the apostles the apostolic constitutions
what it lays down his various descriptions of worship and discipline for the christian community and it's already laying down and purporting to be for the apostolic times that the bishop is to assemble the faithful as dawn at sunset each day
and then as i mentioned last week we have that famous reference of pliny the younger you call him plenty is that more pliny the younger
who is a historian speaking of the christians
and the saying is the christians gather in the early morning with the christians met together to sing at him to christ as god
then they go away and return once more in the evening so we have some pretty strong evidence that there was this gathering the morning a the evening everyday gathered by the bishop of course we think of a bishop is being in charge of a huge diocese but in the earliest
days but has a think of a bishop more like a pastor and maybe even smaller so bishop would be
the head of a group about the size of of a large church perhaps
and these are all evolving and changing as the faith is spreading to places outside of jerusalem
and very early on we have evidence that
the chanting of songs came to be associated with the first gleam of daylight and the lighting of lamps can be associated with this prayer and even at it fall easily
there's another minute mentioned two or three other documents here's another one called the dedication i'm sure some of you have run into this in your other studies the decay is a a short early christian manual on morals inch in
on morals and church practice excuse of a little tired and i am i'm fading in and out some these things excuse me for them
anyway chapters seven to fifteen in the dedicate contain different instructions on fasting and praying and how to celebrate the eucharist
that contains many things of great interest to students of early christian liturgy that we don't know exactly who the author is the origin of the day for most scholars place to be around the first century so we have a pretty early authority here
of clement of rome for example so here we have really to centers the dedicate probably coming out of jerusalem and clement of rome coming out of a room ah so we learned from that that like the jews at least they mentioned that some christians are praying at set times in the day
though it's not clear with destruction former the dedicate as instruct christians to pray the lord's prayer three times a day this could be the three six and nine we're not quite sure
so the other thing that starting to develop then is this other practice of vigils
so i mentioned to reading we see some evidence in the acts of the apostles of some of the apostles imitating jesus by staying up all night in prayer
as i mentioned as we are practicing for the how he said saturday liturgy last week that
this practice of keeping visual officially first came to notice on the night of holy saturday when they first started commemorating our lord's resurrection
basing it of course off the lunar calendar when the passover would be celebrating celebrating
so the vigils first came to know his early on the night early on and the night of holy saturday as an observance in anniversary of the lord's resurrection and in expectation of his second coming is a certain as can logical
foundation to that as well because there was a strong belief among early christians that jesus was to return in glory before their generation had passed away you see a lot of then again in the writings of saint palm
and very early on this conviction also arose that just as he had arisen from the tube during the night that preceded the first easter so in in second coming will take place during the night at this at during the same time and second passable season for just as heroes
the dad and we are as the morning so that he would come again in glory them so the practice began developing of staying up all night long and holy saturday waiting for jesus to return he had out at least are coalescing it's pretty interesting wish we have somewhat lost that direction individuals but we have not
last the idea of waiting for the resurrection celebrating the resurrection
so the pascoe vigil office was a gathering of all the faithful presided over by the bishop in rome and course by the one who was who would be eventually caught the pope
so all christians even children were expected to be present for this this is very important event for and present also where the catechumens who had been under instruction for some weeks previously and now were clad in white robes
waiting for baptism
why saving the primo spot to be baptized that the easter vigil because that's really was the only time they would do it can be avoided we've only recover that tradition ourselves recently
we do have some evidence but this office was like they will begin in the early evening with the ceremony of lighting lamps and then continue all throughout the night in samadhi in reading of scripture and different prayers of intercession
at some point during this service they would take place the baptism of the new convert and then at midnight and this source one so as i was being set at cock crow i didn't know the cock crowed at midnight so i'm not sure if they met this doesn't conquer a minute
promise me but i trying to think of the passion of jesus to in the caucus crowing before the cock post three times so sunrise on yeah yeahs and so some sources say at midnight and some sources say a cock crow so i was trying to put the two of them together but they they didn't conflate very well anyway
at some point either at midnight or at cock crow or the cockroach and midnight they would celebrate the eucharist also see how the combination of visual and in culminating in the eucharist and then at dawn and full sunlight the morning
office would be some
whenever that was
now from this great pascoe vigil as soon as the past a character
of every sunday was established their evolved over the first two centuries are ready this a weekly saturday vigil not carry the whole night but used the beginning soon after midnight ending and of the dawn office so from this practice of staying up once a year
as sunday was not necessarily
was it fixes the lord's they immediately but as soon as that got fixed to have a passcode characters member of the resurrection than it was began the practice of staying up all night on every saturday are doing this vigil every saturday to celebrate the lord's resurrection and to speak the lord's resurrection
later on in the era of the martyrs this this short and visions visual service where they would meet in the early hours of the of the morning celebrate your gross ending with a don office would be extended than to also the anniversaries of the martyrs
not celebrated in the church but celebrated outside the walls or in the cemetery with the martyrs were buried so this is that this is the beginning of our office of visuals
first and pascoe character for celebrate just on holy saturday secondly when sunday gets fixed as a pascoe as a commemoration of the resurrection and thirdly
the and then every am so sorry really coming in out here with sudden it gets established and it would be practiced every is saturday and then when the martyrs during the era of them martyrs they will start solving this visual out the graves of the martyrs also before it would expand out to the new church
we have some other evidence of these kind of things also in the apostolic constitutions i just mentioned that dune ever heard of adzharia and injurious diary you know beatty pray that
there was a it was an none a sister religious of some sort from the
fourth century
who went
she was probably from spain or from gaul and she went to visit all the holy places east
i'm pilgrimage as she wrote a travel diary and she left the talent with all the liturgies were like it how the different places she went sounds like something i would do him in the bad com guess what they do with their candles here so she we have a lot of evidence from her as to what was going on
on by the time of the fourth century in jerusalem especially
so put nigeria in the apostolic constitutions together and by her time then we see that there's
in addition to daily morning prayer and eve in evening prayer she mentions the this weekly nighttime visual that was held to celebrate the lord's day and many many of the local churches throughout the mediterranean world
she even goes on the tell us what was in them but these were like they were these vigils were typically include three responsorial psalms are chemicals which would represent to commemorate the three-day in tune jesus
inner sessions
in sensation which was recalling the mirror bearing women who are annoying the body
worked with him capital in burberry women vs years fit
not that the marrow was barry the women who marbury bearing women women bearing moore
and then the proclamation of the gospel account of the lord's resurrection at the end of his visual followed by a blessing in in a dismissal and a time of their visual other occasional visuals would be held in celebrating this same thing and when i was first here we used this
do this one practice add vigils on sunday i'll just say about it so you give some you remember this we would read the gospel of the resurrection at the end of vigils now on sundays you know we read it one of the gospels of the resurrection that lodz day when i was first here the way this visualiser the design was to read the gospel of the resurrection at
the end of the sunday vigil
instead of the gospel of the day and it i'm quite convinced that this is why was it was designed that way i just assume this is that why was the to go back to the earliest sense of with the vigil was about waiting for the lord's resurrection now the person before myself who was playing the readings
you that we should have the gospel of the day there instead of since the first two readings lead up to it and do the resurrection gospel laws which works okay to but if you put that in mind that you understand what that visuals meant to be especially on sunday to always have that pascal character celebrate the lord's resurrection
blends into all the vigil service is through some of that characteristic of wedding loads resurrection every celebrate vigils so you see by this time we have
and the basis of all the hours we celebrate are ready for sure by the third century but all the evidence is very early on in the first and second century we have this gatherings almost juridical gathering the morning in the evening we have some evidence of three six and know we have as
evidence of vigils cleaner
now a little more about at the development than of the little hours the three six and nine
they were sort of growing up quietly and apart from the official round of public worship
some say
this also is derived from a jewish custom of going to the temple at the thirty sixth thousand and nine bauer has you saw even there i mentioned as
going to the temple are going to the synagogue at that our not all agree again this is the case that there's a jewish bases to this
the custom began
i'm to be made more prominent by devout christians of leisure i like that phrase and pick a buses devout christians of leisure i'm groups who were known as versions and celebrates
who are of course the ancestors to least one monastic tradition some people who had declared themselves celebrates are virgins for the sake of the kingdom would have a little more leisure and began gathering very early on together for prayer at these traditional
hours on weekdays either in private they would pretty spread where they would gathered together in church
now it's these groups and monastic history we see some of these groups will begin to withdraw from the city and farm some of the first monastic centers
and these three hours would be added on to these first monastic communities as part of their regular curses of part of the regular schedule that in addition in the morning for an evening prayer they would pray officially together at the third the sixth and the nine hour and they eventually became known them by the latin name of teresa sex them
i'm no
in these first monastic settings at least their purpose was to punctuate the working day
with hours of prayer with times of prayer
not to stop the working day but the punctuate with hours of prayer in order to foster this unceasing prayer
by the middle of the fourth century
they start to become part of the prayer said and common in some traditions but i'll take a while for it will become part of
file for some models but let's go back again was to the third century we have sources from egypt
from egyptian christianity from origin clement of alexandria of alexandria from there also that suggest a pattern of prayer both morning noon and evening so there's a parent of three times they appear clement of alexandria the rights of the custom of praying also at the third the sixth ninth hour the day as well as
as morning evening and night so there you have six in alexandria two trillion and cyprian
this has been north africa
as well as the document the apostolic tradition which is presumably of a roman orange and seeing of north africa and grown
right of a pattern that will start to become a standard is scheduled by the fourth century which is prayer on rising at the thirty six in the ninth hour at the our retiring and during the night so i'm third century you have
six hours a day in similar christian communities this apostolic tradition it was generate how to be the work of hippolytus you may have heard image than that before that's a detailed description of rice and practices presumably from rome
then we have to toulon
she was this passionate representative of christianity also in north africa smarted in to toy five
in his writing he regards prayer in the morning in the evening as he cause of the or razzi honest legitimate the ones of major important pairs of some of such fundamental importance that to him they possess what amounts to a prescriptive force of law and the christians should pray
yea and morning evening though for him to the supreme law of christian prayer is continual prayer the heart the christian is one who prays at all times and everywhere a like others to to the an attempted them to give symbolic explanations of why christians pray at certain hours i'm hoping this next week can have a
this section they are be and the appendix to the rv the talks about him
he also mentions that three six and nine and says their best said in common but he doesn't regard them completely as juridical obligations he cause he can morning and evening to be around ceo is legitimate
and then of course st cyprian who died in two fifty eight
he writes and how the lord's the the in them morning prayer is the commemoration of the lord's resurrection and evening prayer looks for it was eschatological coming so all these church fathers are giving a different spin and why we're doing this but to all of them you're seeing that they're very it's very important in a
his famous treatise on the lord's prayer cypriot also has different interpretations of the third sixth of the ninth hour other than the ones we already saw he has one that's based on the trinity
three six nine for each person and treaty and another that seems to be a combination of what two trillion in her power to say
and then your parties in the apostolic tradition he relates the prayer hours to events surrounding the passion of jesus i have he again there's evidence that is still left in the liturgy the hours now
daytime prayer on friday so after the mid morning reading the prayers lord jesus at this hour you were led out to die on the cross for the salvation of the world at midday prayer lord jesus christ at new and darkness covered all the earth the amount of the would of the cross and the innocent victim for our redemption
and mid afternoon prayer lord jesus you brought the repentant thief from the sufferings on the crops to the joy of your kingdom so this tradition has stayed with us has fought our way through in the room and office from these fathers giving certain spins certain meanings to the new the hours
there are only scattered references to the contents of this pair of his time but what did we find is that with the a big surprise we find biblical psalms and canticles we do start to find some that scripture hymns but i know this from music history that
non scripture hymns were held in great suspicion in the early days of christianity they didn't want to sing anything that wasn't the scriptural have scripture based to it it's st ambrose who will finally break that wide open and is said it's st benedict will bring the into
the custom of celebrating to be hours and having ambrosia him the sun the big revolution there of course is that it wasn't that it's not scripture
two trillion the apostolic tradition both right of a ritual surrounding the lighting of the evening lamps again symbolizing christ as the line of the world
that's a precursor to am a later ritual will see developed called the loose scenario
and also clement of alexandria origin and juliet all mention a practice of the orientation in prayer meaning that they always rude they refer to always praying facing east suggesting both again the rising in the sun and symbolizing
the the risen christ expected to come again and you know for centuries christian churches were fit were built so that the priest with his face and same direction of the assembly would be facing would be facing east as well
so both morning and evening prayer times at least for some christian communities a vote the mystery of jesus passer from death to life this theme is woven throughout these practices
some other at
i think i've given you on irony
so up to their some conclusions
first of all the custom of public or private prayer definite times of the day or night was meant to be a reinforcement of the principle of incessant prayer of ceaseless prayer to the earliest church fathers acknowledge these times as various
so radically obligatory for christians to pray at certain fixed times a day
and three these were not the preserves of clerics and monks these hours but part of every christian's efforts to pray cause to me
i want to do just as little explanation of some of the terms because from here it out the terms are going to get confusing
so sometimes this night office that's developing is going to be called mats this is the name of the anglicans are going to adapt and keep
that word is the derived which is a surprise to be from the latin name for the greek goddess of the god did anybody else know that one know is a great little piece of information whose name was my to die you know that there will be do with know so the basic
meeting of the night office is this idea of being connected with the dawn
it was ever
now as the is where it gets very confusing out
it was first used was first used for the don office not the night office which was the night office
his radar gets confusing the morning office was originally called map to teenage loudest morning praises and the night office was called just
start all over again so
it was first used for the don office not for the night office
k was described as my two teenage loudness the night office from early i was referred to as a vigil or a nocturne sometimes it is even called the tenebrae all these titles stressing night not morning
later on the night office is going to change the name of matins at a time when the vigil office in the great in the roman basilicas was no longer said during the night but very early in the morning so they sticky shifted it if you try to keep this are straight it's not going to work and was followed immediately by
the don office making it one single hours so they fit the whole thing together but eventually the anglicans are going to take the name mountains and keep it for that office
and the dawn office which is originally know as my two teenage loudest get shorted just to the word loud us loudness
the reason that's called loud us is because it recalls the characteristic feature of that office which was
praise but why specifically is because traditionally some one forty eight one forty nine and one fifty from the earliest times up until nineteen eleven
always formed the conclusion of morning prayer forty eight forty nine fifty and the characteristic of those three songs is the first word of it is prayers that's right so it took its name from that
if you'll notice just for the whole weekend miles treatment thanks for them to town centres they did all three songs the an talking about them now if you'll notice in our office we have retained kind of that every one of our closing
songs of praise psalm and one forty one friend and one fifty always uses a concluding some for one of the each one of those is used also that same place so these morning offices originally this vigil office is called map to a loud us
but eventually this will become in our tradition would become known as nocturnes or vigils and this don office is called loudest instead but the anglicans will retain this name mountains for sure you still see that referred to is matt from time to time when i was staying with the holy cross i didn't know what
as they were talking about they kept referring to mountains like figured it was don office in a large traditions used to we'd get pressed together again that's a book can usage to they would they see the galaxy together
that we're soon going to be next week we're going to be talking about the beginnings of the egyptian hermits and baconians
i'm going to talk mostly about their liturgical practice
but we have to understand right away that the the egyptian hermits in peckham ian's didn't give a great emphasis to liturgy in their life these first desert monks it was not that important to them
the greater emphasis was on private prayer in a private asceticism
and the prayer the psalms was a much more personal interior thing then could ever in their mind be conveyed by a celebration of the whole community but
wow that type of monasticism was growing up another form was growing which we just mentioned briefly here and that was from these celebrants and versions they did not entail such a radical break with the world as these egyptian amongst did this would be much more an urban type monasticism
we grow up in rome and incentives and jerusalem as well these monks these monastics tended to live within the framework of the sacramento and liturgical institutions of the existing christian communities
the it's i just got an article in the paper about this the order of virgins was considered you know an order equivalent like as the order of deacons it was a yeah it was an order recognized order within the church and considered one of the they would have their own special garb also to were two litters
he as a deacon would have a stall
there are people who talk about not celebrating versions because they think it's insulting to women well the thing as it was a recognized order and is still a recognized order and the church the order of has been re constituted since the vatican council
i'm so at this time the of the hours is we're seeing is considered the work of the people of god but the folks were speaking of here these early monastics are those who voluntarily chose to be aesthetics and versions clustered around basilicas off and especially in rome
and they didn't have any involvement with the responsibilities of family or property and were free to spend more time in prayer
these were the monastics and this is why i bring this up who made liturgical prayer the basis of the devotion and woven into the fabric of their lives the liturgical prayer
what they would tend to do that is take the prayers that were read existing for the popular
for popular practice and first of all the length and them extended them but also brought them into their more stable form these earliest of the monastics both men many women
these are the ones also who are going to be responsible for transforming that occasional night vigil into a regular office every day
and made the little hours a public practice rather than a private one as will see a little bit down the road to they're also going to both introduced both prime and compline
that's a good break for me i hope some of that makes sense saving i can clarify for you on that
yes they said
i heard
expectation of waiting in vigil for christ to come again
and also set mean they take on different meanings to different people in some traditions it's also celebrating death itself been waiting for death itself
as we said we say that accompanied of course now
can you give of the early church in terms of community as not with the public for all these our would be like a church bell ringing puffins so you just don't exam results in the first centuries of as a domestic church it's not quite clear where they gathered but you know i have we have a book on that the shows
some things that were excavated
that were that were thought to be christian community centers you know but this is considered to domestic church so people have some more means would dedicate their villages to the gatherings of christians and these perhaps with
we'd be the basis of how christian churches were built later with regarding gathering area
so yeah that kind of thing i couldn't be much more specific but it's definitely domestic church we're talking here though the letter of james's refer to your synagogue as if we think the christians are already had some kind of synagogues and kind of gathering place how we met that were you know in in the later church history with three times and yeah
it was really time we know where the hours all these hours were practiced by the community can learn oh certainly yeah yeah but these earliest monastics where clustering around the silicates you know in the fourth century so they would also be the base is the ancestors of of like the the canon
in affiliation with a cathedral and the bells would ring and their main job would be to to pray so that everybody could come enjoy the prayer come and listen to them prayer yes so and as you hear mentioned with some of these church fathers they were considered juridical obligation you may almost
to the our almost to the extent of genetically obliged and the christians would gather to pray everyday at morning and evening whether they had a ballerina
i'm just thinking my awesome
zinc and i'm muslim countries those in a mom there's a couple of years ago nagar they also pray five times a day and it's for whole public's of intellivision and men intelligent stops you never would have problems and stops people closer shops to prayer five and ten years ago it's broadcast over speakers
it's really quite incredible like the whole society stops and good sense of like a break from from everyday life and was credit because
k where i needed a father to son to the holy spirit
there's there's an analysis of movie
well as had on thank you