May 12th, 1998, Serial No. 00293

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Liturgy Class



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father in heaven author of all truth
but people once in darkness has listened to your word and followed your son as he rose from the tomb
hear the prayers of this newborn people and strengthen your church to answer your call may we rise and come forth into the light of day to stand in your presence until eternity dogs we ask this through christ our lord
good morning
gdp measure if you're at my my any risk
and so we're entering into my it favorite part of this the thing that i'm most excited by we may not get to the whole thing today aber we're heading toward the fourth century will talk about the cathedral tradition there and then talk about the big
innings of the monastic tradition and egypt
but a little bit of foul up from last time i brought in a couple of quotes to reach reaching here to where we went to question last class was talking about the first christians especially the first jewish christians have a it's there's some evidence that they might have been celebrating in their own synagogues showed them at a time the litter
james was red
now i read you some sections from both the apostolic constitutions and to dedicate that are true text to as the christians were praying at certain times of the day are ready in the first and second century
we saw the beginnings of the celebration of vigils was jared which started out just ah on a celebration of easter day but gradually as sunday took on an easter character to it every sunday then came to commemorate easter
and so they would celebrate a vigil and also around the death of a martyr there would be a celebration out that martyrs to and online celebration the little hours are developing and the tradition comes back from apostolic times you noticed all the different about teamwork
quotes from where we can't trust taxes from scripture that it was an apostolic tradition to pay at three sixty nine hours but this tradition is mainly being followed by the virgins and aesthetics who have a little more leisure devout christians of leisure were also are monastic and
chester's as well
you're giving it more of its shape and form you'll see it begins to the egyptian monastic tradition and three six and nine weren't quite so important we called a little hours it was is to and quota forgot to bring last time here's from tatooine
early third century it was at the third our that the holy spirit was poured upon the assembled disciples peter on the day he had division of all creatures in the sheet climbed up to higher places to the grace of prayer at the sixth hour likewise john at the ninth hour he went to the temple where he
restored a paralytic to health
so true texan why we would celebrate the little hours here's the one from and hippolytus
if you are at home at the third hour you should pray to god and offer him praise for it was the time when christ was now to the cross in the same way you should pay the sixth our thinking of pricing and the cross while the sun was checked and its course and darkness reigns supreme at the ninth hour your prayer and praise should be protracted it was
spear poured forth water and blood and like the rest of the day span now here's our politics cassano pray to the t
hey to before you lie down to rest about midnight get up again wash your hands with water at once more set out to pray about cock crow get up once more and pray again for as of this time the children of israel the nine christ so there you have hit polities ready
in the third century talking about morning prayer of a midnight prayer a night prayer prayer before going to sleep and the little hours so it goes at least that far back in the tradition and here is saint cyprian
we must also pray in the morning that the resurrection of the lord might be celebrated by morning prayer likewise at the setting of the sun at the end of the day necessarily there must be again prayer for crisis the to send the day moreover that as who are always in christ that is in the light nazis praying even in the night
right thus the widow ana without intermission always gives petitioning and pray and watching persevered in the desert well price so there's lots of text from the third century showing that this is a tradition somewhere
as the christian church is spreading out
a little bit of historical context so we can pull this together of course christianity is spreading from jerusalem
even under in in the time of st paul for sure it is very strong christian church growing in europe rome out into gall northern africa which is where we're gonna get to know that northern african church was very important in the patristic era
and the the external signs of gross were growth were matched by all kinds of internal developments in the church but most more important this expanding church was buck butting up against this dying roman empire was lots of persecution going on it's that persecution going on that caused
the church to remain what i used the term domestic church
and i'm gonna read this paragraph to you from edward foley's book age to age where i get that term from these external signs of growth were matched by internal developments within the church the period between the years one hundred and three thirteen saw the emergence of basic ecclesial structures worshipped forms and dogs
during this period the roles of bishops deacons and many other ministries were delineated fish and still fall and outline of worship that was formed by the second century so there are lines that were developing the second century is really still what we're following in this day and age
this was a time when the divinity in the authority of christ were defined the new testament can cannon was identified and greek philosophy was first employed in the service of christian theology in short it was a time when one could recognize these three elements in the church it was urban
it was gentile and it was being hellenized which i can about an urban church were talking about a church with a lot of greek influence and we're talking about a church that is basically now not a jewish sect anymore but it's own gentile church lacking a central government
plural form in practice and belief more familiar than institutional the years one hundred to three thirteen might be called the era of the domestic church
where are these services are probably taking place for add folly house churches and in catacombs especially in them during the in the areas where persecution is happening during the different persecution euros is also some
a sign that they work
that some of the other christians were also worshipping in basilicas but that's going to come a little bit more later he would send in the next year he himself one other little note again falling up on last week i was kind of surprised by this so i turned it right out just to show you that i'm not above contradicting myself on this most people are going to where we
i generally think of 'em this software is a christian prayer book and i keep saying over and over again on the basis of these other authors that it's mainly samadhi probably that these early christians are praying inherited him yet right from the jews with a mistrust of non scriptural texts i keep saying that over and over again now this is
completely contradicting that so i'll give you a hundred other side of it when what again edward foley says who
is one of my heroes in terms of liturgical scholarship so he probably knows more than i do although it is tradition of the speak of the software is the christian prayer book little evidence exists that christians saying psalms of the first century overshoot so the pauline admonition to sing
psalms even as in collisions three with gratitude your heart sing psalms hymns spiritual songs cannot be taken as proof that the psalms of david where an ordinary part of early christian worship in this context psalms simply means a christian some and no prophesies differentiation is pas
double between the three genres son that he mentions so crane ed foley psalms him spiritual chemicals could all be the same thing and not necessarily the psalms to biblical psalms of david i have not run into the city where else that's why i built i think it's interesting throw this in the mix
the first certain rest reference the singing psalms and christian worship appears in the apocryphal acts of power which has written about the year one ninety
and soon after this than two trillion who died about two twenty five notes that songs were part of the liturgy of the word and psalm singing was probably an ordinary part of christian worship from at least the third century but besides biblical psalms other pieces were written in imitation of the psalms some of the earliest six
samples of these non-biblical sounds are called sammy idiot idiot teach you ever heard that phrase some idiot teaching are the odds of solomon for instance who are written in the first or second century so i have not only that piece information before it's kind of interesting to note that
for sure he's even saying by the third century psalm singing is part of the christian worship that perhaps in the first and second century is not quite yet
so let's leap into the fourth century
with all that as context
and again let's talk about the historical situation so domestic church urban gentile being hellenized
but also a church suffering great persecution for refusing to
worship the roman gods and because the romans are looking for somebody to blame the fall of rome on and so narrow self is going to blame the christians for starting the fire in rome other historians are going to blame christianity for the downfall of the collapse of the roman empire but as damning you will tell you there were many other things wrong with them
roman empire at that time is berkeley theologians and sister jane
this cool anyway so wrong is falling
but what's happening in the fourth century is with the end of the persecutions the edict of milan and three thirteen christianity is become an illicit religion in a roman empire so now it's lawful this is gotta be a major
it may seem odd to be talking about church history here in the context of church practice but you think this second this is often and have major implications on how the liturgy celebrated so put it in the greater context the fourth century
is also a time of intense theological turbulence perhaps with the some of the prosecution's over we have a little more luxury to debate some of the finer points of religion
third centuries the council of nicea the being the person in nature of christ is the era of st ambrose the herbs basil
gregory of nyssa augustan jerome pretty exciting era
thus especially because of the new listen ness of their religion it's gonna be an era of vigorous liturgical development
with the luxury of being able to worship freely and move into bigger spaces and with it being early illicit religion but to some extent and official religion people will join who aren't necessarily converted but are baptized so there's more and more people celebrating this is gonna change the domestic church
into something different
this is also aware we it's from this year that we get many of the
mr gazebo catechist sees that we've been hearing over the
and vigils since easter so the writings of ambrose and cyril of jerusalem
fourth element here in
again one of the most important for our discussion is this is also a period of experimentation in lifestyle especially the beginnings of christian monasticism as we know it
dear of anthony the great who guys in three fifty six communists who dies in three forty six and all the organizers of the first monastic communities in egypt
now the effects of all of this are going to be felt immediately not only in church organization
but also in art in architecture in liturgy in the surgical science in general
because what had formerly been a furtive affair of a persecuted minority suddenly becomes an integral part of the daily public life of the whole roman empire
so during this era
the divine office the liturgy of the hours as much as if not more than the celebration of the eucharist suddenly is going to burst into bloom as a public worship in this period and in many places be established as a cycle of daily common public
service the luge in the hours it's gonna come to his full maturity
part partly that's because the piece of constantine in three thirteen allowed for the development of structured communal prayers and local churches throughout the whole mediterranean region which had not been allowed before
it's during this era than that we can begin to distinguish between a cathedral office and a monastic office which will will carry on with that now for some centuries and even to our own present day
it's the scholar and an employment tales where we get these distinctions from who first why the delineate the devastating the cathedral and the monastic tradition
he divides
the developments in this area into three areas adding doing the cathedral tradition the pure monastic tradition and the urban monastic tradition we're going to spend a little bit less time on the urban monastic tradition but recognize that there are three things the acid tradition again coming
from out of the virgins and aesthetics the devout christians of leisure
so first we'll talk about the cathedral tradition since we go from the known to the unknown who we talked about this morning and will do cathedral this cathedral west and then we'll talk about monastic beast monastic west these are this is where we're heading
cathedral east what area we talking about palestine egypt cappadocia and young constantinople jerusalem

by cathedral office where where designating here is the ecclesial prayer of a local church
because mainly because it's common prayer celebrated in the physical of edifice that houses the local church presided over by a bishop and of clergy so we don't look at the the we're specifically talking about a place the spiritual home this is what the liturgy the hours would be like so
celebrated with in the local area and again in the first part of this era were thinking of a cathedral a diocese maybe is being a cathedral church being as big a diocese maybe having as many people as a large parish would have in our day and age we're not talking about the
the archdiocese of los angeles we're not talking about the archdiocese of san francisco
the scholar bound stark
defends this term cathedral instead of saying parochial because for the first centuries of christianity it specifically the bishops church that is the center of all the surgical life we try to recover that to some extent it it's very hard for us to grasp that as much we have to understand that the cathedral is the center
of all liturgical life
not necessarily the local communities
where we do be covered that in the days like this is for example in a prison mass where we all gather with the bishops and from all over the diocese and see that that's the center where we'll do that for example in phoenix this year and because of the priest is in charge of things there everything is over the top and their read it out
the new ballpark to do confirmation this year could this steer in the holy spirit is that there is a next year the year the holy spirit in the millennium this year so and pentecost sunday they're going to have you know seventy five thousand people being confirmed that
did what he's trying to do arduino as obviously again this is this is the center of the surgical life where the bishop bills for me it loses some of the personal quality i heard of furniture us
i do understand the point they did that also with the right of election this year they gave the read it out another the
not the sun devil stadium built them wherever the phoenix suns play now kimberly of it that i was getting all this information from the priest himself organises these things that he said little over the top and where you get my point for the first centuries of christianity it's the bishops church that's the center of all liturgical life
and now the office
of these churches
is a popular service characterized by lots of symbol and ceremony characterized by chanting characterized by a diversity of ministries so bishop would have some to do the presbytery the deacon the reader the psalmist may different people doing many things this is what the cathedral service of new gbi
ours is like why that's important notice because when we get to the monastic it's gonna be starkly different
but this is what we refer to referred to the cathedral office and office that's characterized by lots of symbol and ceremony by chanting by diversity of ministries
also in contrast to what we're going to see develop in the monastic tradition
the cathedral office is going to be almost invariable in structure and in content
you're going to have a very selective use of samadhi in the cathedral tradition it's not gonna be an important thing in the cathedral tradition to recite the whole software at any time or to ever say all of the psalms
the samedi is limited and select we would say rather than complete
they're not going to read numerically according to the order in the bible
are the could this is another characteristic of the casino tradition out of the cathedral tradition of to of samedi is going to develop the christological interpretation of somebody that's not going to come from the monastic tradition it's going to come from the cathedral tradition crystal logical interpretation so you read in their fathers always seem
christ in the psalms it's going to come out of the cathedral tradition
cathedral tradition here's another characteristic of it is going to be related to the time of day in which is prayed
and as i said it's going to include lots of nonverbal symbols these are the characteristics of the cathedral office
the cathedral office is a service of praise adoration and thanksgiving and intercession much more than a liturgy of the word
cathedral tradition much more praise adoration thanksgiving that a liturgy of the word again which were going to see the monastic office as a matter of fact there is certain evidence that there may have been no scripture lessons read it all in the earliest cathedral tradition of the divine office
as nowadays of course we wouldn't go who wouldn't have an office cathedral and acid without having scripture bread but in those days that might not have happened
what one thing comes from this era that ties us right into it which i think is
rather wonderful is this famous evening him the false hillary on the text of course and english is or radiant light oh holy glory of god the father
gaudi more of father in heaven that him comes from this era were speaking of because st basil already quotes that him in the year three seventy nine
so the first century they're singing the same him we sing on saturday evenings sunday evenings here
may different translations of it around it's used all over the place you tonight
the out of this a twenty right back to some of these characteristics i'm speaking of is the symbolic use of light
light is going to be an operative symbol both for the morning and for the evening and compete with tradition monastic tradition is not going to rely so much and symbolism and off the nutrition is operating in symbolism of light in the morning the rising sun is the rising christ in the he
evening the light is you are the line of the world we live a fire remember that crisis delighted that carries us through the darkness
so here me
when to choose carefully to eusebius bishop of says area and palestine in his commentaries on the psalms
quotes that throughout the christian world morning and evening prayer were being celebrated everywhere publicly and daily
when he alludes to is the widespread use of some sixty two at morning prayer someone forty at evening prayer
think of those two songs for a second when do we use them sunday morning prayer
sunday evening prayer the same two songs first vespers sunday
when and
mowbray said is rather invariable in in in its content it could be that every night they sang some someone forty in every morning they sang some sixty two it wasn't dependent on the schedule as we as the roman offices now as monastic office has its curses as well
but again is a certain comfort i take a knowing that that the singing of that song in the morning or rarely is taking place in the fourth century and is carried on this far
some other sources from this era that confirm at least the celebration of the divine office greg have nieces rights of it john chris system rights of the apostolic constitutions which i mentioned last week that document from the second half of the fourth century syria
an injurious diary remember the the
the western european none who traveled to jerusalem all speak of the morning and evening prayer services
and together combining these different elements together they not only a from eusebius claim they provide some evidence of additional elements involved in this first evolved they all speak of the loose scenario to begin evening prayer which would be sentimental offering of incense within the lighting of
candles or the lining of a candle and interest and they also mention the element of intersections this is a characteristic of the out of the cathedral actress it's not going to carry into the monastic office right away the use of intercession as consider a cathedral
so they mentioned incest lose scenario dimension intersections and they mentioned the use of a blessing
the eastern tradition cathedral in the west
we're on shakier ground there because there are fewer traces of the western cathedral office den of the eastern because the western monastic tradition soon it's going to over overwhelms the western cathedral tradition
except in spain
spain new system most evidence and proud of the some evidence of spent in spain as garlic influences well be getting in the fourth century spanish sources are going to indicate the use of additional songs and biblical chemicals both and mourning period evening prayer and here's some those things
they mentioned some fifty having a widespread use as the initial morning psalm here's is as another characteristic it's going to stretch all the way up to the twentieth century the practice of beginning every morning prayer with sound fifty which we do of course every friday morning you notice that
the one week it's a one week day where we don't have a week one and a week to for the first some because that is the traditional prayer to start moaning parents in general so every friday even in the roman office you always pray psalm fifty some fifty one of god have mercy on me gone in your kindness
it was a portal
right as smooth
also we're going to learn from these sources to see if you remember this from last week the spanish sources the widespread use of some one forty eight when forty nine and one fifty used every day at the end of lodz z may remember why i gave you the reason why those three songs are used what connection
that has with the name of the office press praise they are begin with the word loudest praise lavished praise
so that's how lodz gets its name from the use of through these three of these three praise psalms so it looks like the spanish sources giving us a pretty long office there are already starting with you know if they're doing some fifty maybe sixty two one forty one for it i would fifty simply size blocks
here's another one see if you can recognize where this comes in on sundays and feast days morning prayer usually included mechanicals of three young men from daniel three
where would that be
where does every residence with modern day
yeah again thus our sunday office we have it in the roman office there's the two different chemicals from daniel also use but that chemical mechanical of the three young men is used for week one sunday in the roman office and every time there's a solemnity or feast you do sunday morning for a week wow
one so again the tradition of using the chemicals the three young men which we have in our office dates back at in the fourth century some of that canada became very important for them
remember again invariable they just may have been doing the same office every day we are
pretty spoiled at least a two week psycho the different out because we have fourteen different opposites
from the fourth century on in the west
from the basilica is especially in rome is going to emerge a more or less fixed pattern that's going to tend to be a model for all other churches in rome this do office that celebrated in the roman basilicas now saying that
adding to that the fact that these other sources from around europe will make their way into the roman basilica practices but you will we will see that the roman basilica practice be tends to become a model for all the churches throughout europe
from the fourth century i were still going to see the software and the bible remain the principal material
but at that period remember that each bishop in each diocese is free to choose and to introduce additional formularies of prayer not just
and in in the liturgy the hours but in eucharist as well this is still not a time when the liturgical laws in the liturgical practices have been put into law
guess how how how are they distinction is hug
this i don't think that there is a distinction necessarily basilica may
i don't know much more than that but a basilica really describes more a style of church would think at this time that is that's inherited from the in the roman empire that basilicas were used actually for public gatherings for for secular services and many of the silicon were taken over them in the christian
year as churches but it's there are many in in and around the area of rome where with the seat of government was and their practices are going to become a lot more uniform and the bishop of rome and a different basilicas they would spread their and it's the practices that are going on all these different basilicas the cathedral would be cut it out
would be specifically seat at the bishop of rome the realm is one of those places where there's gonna be more than obviously more than one church for the christians because there's such a huge number of christians
the basilica style church is still that
i'm not very good at drawing but we get that type of the rounded apps and it and even the cruciform i think is a basilica style isn't it before i was a christian style with the across transept in the long nave and the apps behind them so we adapt that make a christian so
a lot of it but i'm pretty sure am i right on that the cruciform church cut it predates christianity is that right i'm not sure i'm going to look that up and i'd bring an extra i have some that specifically talks about them
but i want to give a be a brief nod here to saint ambrose is milan because milan has historically tended to be a place of liturgical innovation has been a a prime see and also a place where people are i'm
nurtured to be poke and i'm not sure if would be quite as lucky this time it's her on much with a monkey in my team can't have a guy named after a bad country sees these problems and a jesuit jesuit named after a cocktail sorry to have another
but ambrose is going to add to innovations
again these two things are going to survive throughout liturgical history one of them is a specific style of him singing and the second is and typical city
yeah again when i read from edward you may contradict this but i'm going to go on the basis of my other knowledge there is a certain
mistrust of non scriptural texts at least in this era of the church
the psalter the bible itself is the songbook of the church but ambrose great orthodox theologian that he was an apologist and defender of the faith
right hymns specifically defending the faith
and introduces this style of metric hymnody which means that it's very similar to how we sing nowadays there would be for example for lines and every one of those four lines would have the same number of syllables and they would rhyme online be a b
b c be so da da da da da da da da da data data data data data data data data data data almost every him we have an office has laid out that way eight syllables eight simple jason was that's why are the melodies can do to change well this at st ambrose gets attributed with die
developing that metric him style
we'll see later on we talk where the rule of st benedict say benedick one ads ambrose young he adds the ambrosia hymns into the monastic office which they weren't there before chris it comes and stays this way for centuries and a very odd time he has him come in after all the songs whereas we have it at the beginning of the off
this so st ambrose out that st ambrose
i have a good this year with a question mark i remember this for music history class but i'm not exactly sure the source of it another reason why we n christians might have been mistrustful of his him style is because it may have had a little too close relation to pagan song forms and those days there was great
after it to stay away from pagan theater and pagan art pagan song for syndromes speaks very humid here hop of putting any of the trappings of pagan theater at the time so that may have been somewhere in the background also of this mistrust of that hairstyle
but st ambrose baptizes it and brings it into the church the other thing
is antipodal singing and we're not exactly sure what it means it will see this a gamma we talked about rules and better we're not even sure would say benteke beans by antiphonal singing but some kind of chanting of the psalms is going to be promoted by st ambrose it could mean alternating quires as
we do it vigils
it could mean yeah even one speculation could mean singing in octaves zero singing in octaves would be no we had a guy here to of the day we singing everything over seeing an activist means that for example women have a different range in the men image of arranger and the men and little boys have different rooms to sing together
either in parallel comparable outcomes it might mean that i think it's is less evidence for that it might mean this seems to me to be the strongest argument having refrains like a responsorial mode like a response or assam as we sing refrain after each verse it might have been
in typical in that way or response rees and like the like the after some of the african sun forms i've seen i should bring one of those along you michael you will recognize this more were a line is sad
and you repeat the line right afterwards and another line of seventy repeat the first line and as if it's really kind of complicated thing which you can use to the rhythm you know
the the ground is called the rate up there the rain up there the wind blows the trees are shaken terrain up there the rain up there it might have been a form like that as but but dialogic
we just don't have enough to summarize a typical morning prayer evening prayer in the fourth century let's try to put ourselves their lodz very well could be something like this psalm fifty some sixty two someone forty eight one for anyone fifty
if very well could include the gloria innings chelsea's intercessions a blessing a dismissal
vespers very well could look something like this a light service and a him quite possibly the full solaria or radiant light
i'm using this so the melly that we sing but using that very same text in greek lamb
evening songs including some one forty
in sensation hymns and antiphons intercessions blessing and dismissal
these are the five elements than a selective use of the samiti not a quarter but selected for the appropriateness of the time of day and season the year with an effort to underscore this christological meaning of this sounds to the cathedral tradition there's gotta be ritual development mm
more elaborate ceremonial more diverse ministries use of light symbols of incense vessels three use of texts and songs that could be easily recognized and remembered now we don't know this way but this is more of a speculation but if it's a popular participation and there aren't a lot of books or a meme
neograft machine
we can pretty well summarized that there were styles done that encouraged easy and immediate participation
and maybe that meant to reduce the number of elements but use lots of repetition so there would be the practice of using the same for songs every day because they could be memorized
cathedral tradition is going to be limited publicly to the common prayer of morning and evening when they had vigils if they have visuals it would have been a shorter office and the little hours are not gonna be a part of the cathedral tradition
and readings and prayers outside of the intercessions and the blessing are often in the cathedral tradition eliminated altogether
because the the office the cathedral transition tradition is not designed to instruct and teach it's not considered of liturgy of the word it's main focuses on prayer adoration thanksgiving
even the lilies of petition that would be that that would replace a teaching of a reading
it's funny sometimes you'll even here monks when i was first of has happened more saying of complaining about the fact that are intercessory prayers go on and on here and why the thing is that it or is this still this kind of monastic president is that monks don't do that kind of intercessory prayer through divine office that's a cathedral thing to do
the monks have been so and there's still some of that you see that tension is still in there ah we don't have to draw that coleman fast line we just don't have done for me it's sort of the most important things we do with the divine office i think
i would refer you back if you want a new addition or reading on this to the
darby nineteen eighty appendix three a treatment of this but in conclusion i want to reach you from
robert taft sj
i think it's already time before today too
on redis right out
this is indeed a reach reach this is indeed a rich beast of services that we find in the second half of the fourth century with the exception of egypt where the picture is not clear by the end of the century and palestine syria asia minor accounts then it but we see already a well established co
pursues of cathedral officers celebrated by the whole community bishops clergy people mountains and vespers where the to privileged hours of daily prayer mountains here many laws
and the offices comprised of popular elements such as select psalms and chemicals chosen because of the suitability for their our executed with popular participation to or and elephants ceremonial use of light incense processions petitioner intercessions for the needs steer to people's hearts
kane about the rationale of these offices the morning hour of prayer was the service of thanks and praise for the new day and for salvation in christ jesus it was the christian way of opening and dedicating the new day vespers was the christian way of closing the day thanking god for the
days graces asking for pardon for the days faults beseeching his grace and protection for a safe and sinless nine the basic symbol of both services is blight the rising sun the new day with is changed from darkness to light be called the resurrection from the dead of christ the son of justice the evening lamp lit
get recalls the joining light of the world shining amidst the darkness of sin and christians did these prayers in common because as john chris system and the apostolic constitutions of from their sole power was as the body of christ to absent oneself from the synopsis is to weaken the body
the and deprive the head of its members
so there we have the cathedral tradition fourth century that's a good place for me to stop
and any questions or china answer just use of words and access to him
often times associated with the monastic or associate with yeah and the syntax has really just means a gathering sobbing he used the propres is a pretty loosely there i think of as specifically as monastic use eucharist in the desert but yeah he's usenet said asked syntax is just for the guy
either in general and we'll see a refrains baconian office they use the sun access to refer just to the gathering together the monks since well you're not just not specifically for eucharist any gambler pacific britain know i think it means gathering will
oh i hope i didn't is that right i had to go and tapered and mistranslation and think it means gathering in coming together
and the other questions
glory be to the father to the son to the holy spirit as it was the in is now can we shall we were without and ah man francis comes back to the castle

the father son holy spirit
father you restore your people to eternal life by raising christ your son from death make our faith strong and our hope short may we never doubt that you will fulfill the promises you have made grant this through christ our lord
what we're going to head into fourth century monastic practices today quick review of last week i was being it was being quoted to me by those who work in attendance we talked about the cathedral tradition and the fourth century more and more we're going to see how their today
different ways to celebrate the samadhi this divine office to cathedral way and the monastic way so the five elements that i told you the cathedral tradition one was that there was a selective use of samadhi there was no effort at all to use the whole salter they would pick some songs that sa
alms that seemed appropriate to what was going on time
and there was part of that was their effort to underscore the christological meeting of the samadhi the second thing is and the cathedral tradition there was a lot of ritual development there was elaborate ceremony on which is something we're not going to see developing out of the pure monastic tradition so use of lights incense vest
what's all this comes from cathedral tradition three there was always a use of texts and songs that could be easily recognized and remembered his we're not counting on an assembly and a cathedral necessarily to have had lot of access the scripture to be able to memorize things by heart but participate
patient is being encouraged so we can speculate about how they were executing it may be a reduced number of elements may be lots of repetition maybe the use of responsorial psalm eighty
for in the cathedral tradition they were limited to come and morning prayer evening prayer public mourning current evening prayer when there was something like a vigil service it was a shorter office than be growing up in monastic and five oftentimes readings and extraneous prayers were eliminated all
together and compete with tradition
it wasn't designed to instruct as much as to give praise lot of times the readings would be replaced with litanies of petition so petition is gonna grow out of the cathedral tradition

now fourth century monasticism
we're talking about
is what the the scholar and the tales cause the pure monastic office that's my main objectives today is to talk about that so while the liturgy the hours while some form of the dive by an office is forming itself in secular churches throughout christian empire during the second half of the for
century a whole parallel series of offices is evolving in the monastic centers that have now begun to sprung up in egypt and in enum the turbine is that the for pronunciation for that k by where thieves is the by i'd nobody knows i can say it that way
and the tab i'd
my next to the alligator their thebes
scuse me
hundred gate
the so the scholar mateus divides these offices into basically in the two different families
what he caused a pure monastic office of the egyptian desert and the second is a hybrid office that's developing and urban monastic communities
in the egyptian does it we're going to get the pure monastic office anywhere else is gonna be a hybrid office
we're also going to well as we've discussed us we're getting a little bit of monastic history that's the most exciting part of this to me the way benedict a word describes at least there's three different types main types of monastic experimentation going on in egypt to time corresponding roughly two
three geographic centres so there's hermits there's center bites and there is just a plain old aesthetics as how she described it lower egypt which is actually
up there that lower because the nile runs from the north to the south
but we're really talking about here
there's hermits the prototype of course is anthony the great who withdrew from society in the mid third century and then went into further and further solitude in the desert he had many disciples we still regarded as the father of monks who we do not
have a monastic office tradition growing on it anthony
but then we have nutrient skeeters and kellyanne you see up there farther
these are the groups of ascetics this is the laura or lavra model or the scheme model for monasticism where you have several months who are living together often as disciples of arba
it was really a meeting place between the desert in the world where visitors could actually make contact with traditions of the desert when our friend douglas britain christie was here i remember him showing us slides of his visit to these places and he was surprised to find out how actually close
do they were to the towns they weren't all that far off for people to get a visit these monks these are the groups of aesthetics the allow rose or loughborough or skeet
this type of monasticism was in a sense a more learned type of monasticism it was greek influenced type of monasticism
there was growing up here
a virus of pontus for example are great father who was a great influence on john cation is probably the most famous son of this lineage but is also from none of this lineage that we get many of the stories of the desert mothers and fathers path murder
and then this third group which is upper egypt down there
the santa bites
these men are actually living in a less remote area than the ones and lower egypt
it's main centre is tbilisi spelled aka the every every book you have a different spelling of all these names so i'm just going with the one i think looks the best
the main figure here is cummings
three forty seven days mid fourth century he's credited with being the creator the father of organized monasticism these aren't groups these art hermits grouped around a spiritual father these are definitely communities of brothers united and work in prayer
this pure monastic office tradition we're talking about mainly comes out of these last two of the nutria skeeters kellyanne
lavrov aesthetics and out of themes tavern uses a and law

quote from devote way just to give us a little background know we know already that in the fourth century christianity has become legalized and has become kind of them
so i'm looking for has become establishment you know
here's the vote way on this era and also on the so many this year when the threat of bloody death ceased to hang over every christian head the monk then tried to give his whole life here below the value of martyrdom hence forget the name white margaret i'm supposed to read martyrdom
the break with the world no longer consisted in defying the law and confronting torture but in leaving society and living for god alone far from other people
the value attached to the supreme sacrifice was transferred to an earthly existence totally consecrated to god the present time was thus charged with a new value and christ's appeal for continual prayer resounded with more force than ever
thereafter to pray without ceasing was no longer to be one of the lord's directives one of the lord's directors among others it was to be the raison d'etre of lives lived from every lives freed from every temporal preoccupation in the retreat the monk could apply the gospel
ol instructions literally all day and half the night would be devoted to uninterrupted prayer accompanied by manual work
so the sacrifice of praise is now be coming equivalent to the sacrifice of one's life if we can't give our lives in martyrdom and read martin and we given in white martyrdom part of that is removing ourselves from the occupations of the world part of that is living in ascetic life and part of that
that is it's continual sacrifice of praise uninterrupted prayer becomes the main focus of the monks life to pray without ceasing
how this relates exactly to the office and general member i and tell you about the tension between praying without ceasing and actually taking some times a day after pray some people scorn that well this continuity made the celebration in the egyptian monasteries of the traditional hours useless thus
to begin if those at the beginning in the end of the day were kept but the whole day was spent without offices this at least was the original practice of the monks in egypt this is also the ambition of the fervent most fervent and strong as of months
so the elaborate tradition of seven or eight hours a day is not gonna come out of here but there's the are still going to have a practice of morning and evening prayer and i'll shake specifically how they're going to do that let's talk about nitrous kellyanne skeet as first
so in lower egypt which is actually north
there were three great monastic centers located just south of alexandria in the libyan desert those to meet as i marked the most important is scotus and that's where we're going to talk about the most today that's about if you ever been to modern day cairo this will help if not this is more information you need it's about sixty five miles northwest
of modern day cairo
can you picture that richard you five in there haven't you
okay so you wouldn't be able to tell if i was lying his dysfunction we have most of our hair off
we have most of our information about these offices from the great john cation so just a little background about him first he was thought to have been born about mid fourth century in once present day rumanian the delta of the danube
as a young man he had joined a monastery in bethlehem and then went on to egypt as a young monk and he left behind detailed descriptions of the monastic life that he found there mainly in to writing this known as the institute's in the conferences the institute's mainly about celebrating life and conferences mainly about the herb
midlife the a sonics
he is believed to have lived in skeeters
for about nineteen years between three eighty and three ninety nine he may have also visited nutrient callous calea in in on his way in and his way out and he may have had contact with the baconians in upper egypt as well but he
but we don't know that for a fact after he left egypt he found it to monasteries in what is now merseyside france and it was for that audience that he wrote his famous institutes and his conferences he wasn't necessarily writing a history of egyptian manasseh
racism which we actually rely on him a great deal for but he was trying to reform his on garlic monasticism of which he was a part by trying to show them how the egyptian monks lived
you i will i couldn't believe it we don't have a copy of the institute's in english here but here's some of them
oh robert taft quotes of in his book
see like find us
from cash and institutes one rose up in the midst one rose up in the midst to chant the psalms to the lord and while they were all sitting as is still the custom in egypt with their minds intently fixed on the words of the chanter when not sure that we're chanter means there
when he had sung eleven psalms separated by prayers introduced between them verse after verse being evenly enunciated he finished the twelfth with the response of alleluia and then by his sudden disappearance from the eyes of all put an end at once to their discussion in there sir
these a for prayers then they begin to finish in such a way that when the somme has ended they do not hurry at once to kneel down as service do in this country dragged his own monks among them therefore it is not so but before they bend their knees they pray for a few moments and while they are standing up to spend
greater time in prayer so after this for the briefest space of time they prostrate themselves to the ground as if but adoring the divine mercy and as soon as possible rise up and again standing erect with outspread hands just as they had been standing to pray before remained with thoughts intent about their prayers
when then they meet together to celebrate the aforementioned rights which they terms and axes they are also perfectly silent that though so large a number of the brethren is assembled together you would not think a single person is present except the one who stands up and chance the psalms in their midst
and especially this is the case when the prayers completed for then there is no spitting know clearing of the throat or noise of coughing know sleepy yawning with open mouths and gasping know groans or size or uttered likely to distract those standing near
when did it were so he i very reserve really that good there either
and therefore they do not even attempt to finish the sums which they sing in the service by an unbroken and continuous recitation but they repeat them separately and bit by bit divided into two or three sections
except for vespers and nocturnes there are no public services among them during the day except on saturday and sunday when they meet together at the third hour for holy communion couple of quotes some cash ins institutes about the practices them from cash and we learn that they have two offices to be celebrate together we call them daily but they really weren't so
liberated together daily one at night actually the wee small hours of the morning on rising i'm still a little confused about i've never been a farm boys i'm still look confused about when the cock actually crows but some people say it's a cock crow and some people say it's that the wee small hours of
nine sophie
you're from the bronx where you can tell you about what we have chickens in the it
harry like some therefore oh alarm clock four o'clock with every golf okay
you might find out some maths lethal for an asset
and the other one is in the evening after the one daily meal that they had to give and now they this desert and at the ninth hour just before retiring now i call that like three or four o'clock for them so these are there two times the wee small hours of the morning which they're still considering night and sometime like late afternoon
here vigils as i've mentioned referred to as the night office it's from here that we get this idea of the night office and keeping the vocabulary from this tradition the core of their office when they celebrate together was twelve songs mostly as we say in course one after this and they do one through twelve
they do thirteen through twenty four for example in order from one to one fifty without any regard for their appropriateness the time of day as is common in the monastic tradition as opposed to cathedral tradition
and the order of the office would go like this imagine this imagine if you will
a soloist stands and chance to some that what this word chanting means i'm serious were not really sure because as i've explained some as a choir practice this line between singing and speaking is very thin public declamation of a text is very close to close the singing and will see bell
click sometime says the one who is chanting now says or the speaker now sings you the so that the words get mixed up but any rate somebody stands up and recites the somme
rest of the monks are sitting there listening
after the somme is finished
is a time all monk stand extend their arms for a time
and then they all prostrate
and then there's they all stand again and a colleague or a prayer is red and this is repeated her twelve times the final some always has an alleluia on it and is followed by the gloria patri know we say the glory doxology in every song they would only do this at the barrier
and then after the twelve songs it would be to lessen subscription on the weekdays one would be a reading from the old testament and want wanna reading from the new testament and saturdays and sundays during eastertide one would be from the acts of the apostles or the epistles and one from the gospel
now monday through friday
these two daily officers were done by the monks in their selves
either alone or with whoever happened to reside or be visiting with them you read this aloud in the
the sayings of the desert fathers how these monks or is visiting each other and staying the night having dinner or if it's time for the office they would be seen the office together probably in this way
but on saturday and sunday all the monks of the laura would gather in church together for what's called the synopsis the office
on sundays they would also have eucharist and an aga pay meal in common after which one would draw supplies from the common storehouse to take back to their self for the next five days
refined us in his history the monks of egypt's here's this quote from him they come together in the churches only on saturdays and sundays and meet one another many of them who die in their cells are not found for four days because they just has his favour expected this and access nice huh
but at least we know from him that he probably came together and in sundays
now this is what we're learning from cash and across we have a little hint from refiners to cash it is i have to add this little disclaimer
that he's not without his problems we're not exactly sure of his description of these things because first of all he's riding in a distance of some years after he left egypt and he also may be offering an idealized view of how things really were because he was trying to spare his own monks on their practice
for example there's no other source that medicines those two readings but cash puts it in but we do get some kind of idea than what's going on up in skaters hobby something like that going on in kelly and nutria
no farther south in thebes and the turbine
we have to become in tradition and the office of becoming a tradition his feast day is frightened by the way
the communists was
a young pagan
that was led to christ this is beautiful story of him the being led to christ by the charity of some villagers who are giving food to a destitute to destitute prisoners to every that story was led to convert to christianity he began starting a scientific foundations around doug
three twenty
down south in the nile valley of the tape i'd the area north of seems
often scholars and other things i've read anyway extend some of the skeeters practices to the thieves practices to becoming uses but it's really not necessarily always the case the camion and tradition is highly set a basic whereas the ascetic
they're going to have a still more the aromatic rouge and not so much concerned with communal life the camion system is a highly organized type of life we call him the father sena vidic monasticism his stress was unusual obedience is stress was on fraternal charity
these with the cornerstones and become in monastic life
his monastic foundations were organized shortly after his death into a kind of congregation that group several thousand monks
a typical monastery in the commun tradition would be comprised actually have something like thirty or forty houses or dormitories and each house would have
forty or so monks to a house
so it's a huge movement with that many monks living together as is some rules
they had to customary daily offices one at dawn one in the evening and they were always held in common
the dawn office with the whole community not at cock crow but at the normal our like as the cathedral usage would be
when the sun was up
the evening office usually was held in the individual houses or dormitories that made up to monastic community so this morning office could be quite a huge gathering and the evening office then with just your local your house group
some of the pre-columbian sources are also referring to an all night to are like vigils
that went from sundown of the evening sun access until the morning sir nexus but most scholars figured this was actually a private devotion not a public not a service that was celebrated in common though perhaps they
they did have i'm perhaps the easter time they would do celebrated a night off us all together just like as i mentioned before is going on in jerusalem and rome when once a year they would celebrate easter by staying up all night waiting for the resurrection or when a monk died they would stay up all night and wake his body individual service but it's
not an organized office as the dawn in the evening offices are
we have that we do have some of the me and writings of english here's something from
one of the rules
had the beginning of our prayers let us sign ourselves with the seal of baptism let us make the sign of cross on our foreheads is on the day of our baptism let us not lower our head to our mouth or to r a beard but let us raise it to our foreheads saying in our heart we have signed ourselves with the seal
when the signal is given for prayer let us rise promptly and when the signal is given to kneel that as prostate prostrate promptly to adore the lord having signed ourselves before kneeling once we are prostrate on our face let us weep in our heart for our sins as it is written come let us adore the law
lord and weep before our maker that actually no one raised the head while kneeling for this shows a great lack of fear and knowledge when we rise again let us sign ourselves and after uttering the pair of the gospel let us supplicate saying lord and still it in and your fear into our hearts that we
may labor for eternal life and hold you in fear
when the signal is given to be seated that as again sign ourselves in the forehead at the sign of the cross that as be seeded and pay attention hearts and ears to the holy words being recited in a court
with what we have been commanded let no one in the synopsis look up at any one in the face without necessity he who needlessly looks at his neighbor in the face usually provokes laughter on the face or a smile which brings no profit and even brings indignation that as guard ourselves against all things that are harmful to our
then it got an economically kick completely out of this
a comedian has a democrate no snickering in fire
and the second thing is it of what's interesting about where do i have this i've got all these little papers to show it
here you go
and during the primitive office of these to have been less yacht since zettabytes
the months would be seated and they would continue doing their usual handiwork this was the most fascinating thing and we were taken the monastic history course we talk about for some time usually reefing weaving rushes into baskets and mats
while different appointed individuals ensuring would go to the ambo to recite possibly from memory
it's an interesting approach to traer to be working well the common prayer while that common office is going on here's a little bit again from the vogue way on that
the tradition of egypt and also of god in his wake so probably cash and brought this back to his monasteries in merseyside would have it that the monk kept his hands busy during the night office while listening to the biblical recitations certainly this was primarily a matter of keeping awake
in the hunt vigils
but nothing could show better the continuity of the office with the workday
a later on we're going to see both in the master and and benedict in the rule of benedict how the oratory is going to be strictly a place for prayer no work and no tools or to be run into the monastery it's a whole it's a little different approach in the boat way for example speculates it's probably the influence of augustan and
other clerics who have this sense that there's a sacred space and there's a not sacred space is church and and there's everything else but remember we're talking about ceaseless prayer so things are supposed to be woven together
this one more line your to sorry
but a bishop like augusta could see in this a profanation of the holy place in the same repugnance might have existed in the monastic circles in rome so closely associated with clergy but it seems
the becoming a monk who meditated in his cell during his work must have found it natural to work in the oratory while listening to scripture so if your work is must be praying while you're working why couldn't you pray what can you work
why i'm praying at the same time the farm says that it's a tiny little thing but it really does if it's a real it's a real difference i have a little this article from aquanaut have that we looked at before bring that even better they could get talking about the the oratory so anyway the monks are working there weaving baskets while this is
going on and appointed individuals are going up to the ambo to recite possibly from memory of the a biblical passage now i'm saying specifically of biblical passage not necessarily a psalm there is an indication of becoming office that they might not just be reading songs for their lessons and after each passage
picture if you will the reader would give a sign all would rise make the sign of the cross on their forehead recite the our father with the arms extended in the form of across another signal they would bless themselves again prostrate on the ground bemoaning their sins
and then another signal they would rise bless themselves again and pray in silence and one more signal they would sit down and start the whole process over again of how ever many psalms they would have
another little side note is this prayer in silence
now according to devote where he writes pages and pages about this the prayer in silence accredited to vogue way to these monks that was the real prayer of the office not the samadhi but that silent moment that was the real point of the office and if can find that
that forty one here
this is i find this very moving

for the ancients the office was by no means a mere declamation of texts silent prayer occupied a considerable place in it and to judge by the length of the prayer each prayer could have lasted about one and a half minutes that means that they often gave to prayer a time equals
a that of the song
but such a quantitative fullness express only imperfectly the spiritual meaning recognized in the prayer this meeting appears still better in the intensity required of the one praying while the somebody requires only a respectful bearing and an attentive mind
the prayer demands an intense effort of supplication all the energies of the body and soul are mobilized for this act tears flow size as if from a heart filled with fervor hands are extended as if to seize the feet of christ prayer here appears not as a
relaxation after the psalms but as a redoubling of the effort
it's silence carries a maximum of spiritual energy the very contrast of attitudes invites us to see in it the supreme act of the office for these monks if the monk was ceded to listen to the somme he rose to make the prayer if he said the somme standing he prostrated himself to make the prayer
so this prayer is the crowning of the some both interior and exterior me
but it's still too little to recognize and a prayer the strong beat and spiritual summit we must go further and understand that it alone is the prayer of the office in the proper sense saying the psalms is is not of itself praying during the making that point before says cathedral tradition
sing the psalms themselves as to prayer but for the monastic tradition it's these big pockets of silence in between with the actual prayer of the office goes on
again a subtle point by kick it really changes our whole approach to the office and y values so much are good i have these counters know i've instructed them and how many breaths we should keep between the somme so that we have this time to pray and to absorb these scriptures between so is it's not
completely certain how often this liturgical unit was repeated the evening prayer was called the office of six prayers so that may indicate that there were six sections on sundays they added the chanting of psalms in some kind of response or mode and we just have no idea what that was like but the
it was also an addition on sundays of eucharist and spiritual conferences by superior maybe not unlike our chapter meeting
you could tell it like this one so much because i brought so many extra materials on this this is this wonderful book a little hard to read sometimes by there was shitty talk about a colorful named you know it the desert is city
introduction to the study of the egyptian past the new monasticism really i get very dense and he gets into a lot of details that she would necessarily need to know but here's some description of these
conferences that would go on in connection with their son axes
within each monastery three weekly instructions the greek word there i was struggling with my once mess you of greek richard to be so proud of me is can tag case say yes can cases that have been a lot if you put an english i think would be given by the stewart
it's one on saturdays and to on sundays and two on wednesdays and fridays by the house masters at the end of this century according to palladium the daily meal began at midday but there were later cities for the more aesthetic and instruction would follow the meal on some appointed days sometimes it would be in the open air about amon
gives a vivid account of such an instruction on the day when he was received as a lad of seventeen at foul in eighty three fifty two theodore sitting under a palm tree with six hundred brethren gathered around him and giving before them all a different word of scripture to be applied to each monk who asked him
at the am the leader would rise up to pray with the brethren that they might ever remember the word of god unto salvation and each would return to his own house in silence never there are living in different dormitory meditating and what he had heard and getting it by heart
in each house then a synopsis of six prayers would then take place modeled on that which had already been held in the general assembly and probably followed at least on wednesdays and fridays by the house master's instructions there seems now to have been time for conversation strictly confined to the subject of the instruction received before
or retirement to sleep and sometime after midnight a signal would be given jerome causes a tuba cooking pots would get a tube that the fourth century i'd like to hear it
this which would last until near dawn so there's a whole nother description saying they have the conference is not just on sundays but also sometimes and wednesdays and fridays it's one thing to hear about their practices and abstract is another thing that get a sense of what the life was like and how this prayer fits into it
so like the contemporary cathedral tradition that talking both about the turbine and skeeters
the pure monastic office to has only two common meetings or some axes want to be getting and one of the end of the day the lower amongst lower egypt went to bed at nightfall and rose again after a brief rest
mugs of your lower egypt hike keep can trigger out with that so they are their morning office is actually the second half of the night and was probably over by dawn lower egypt which is actually up north
how robert taft that's great scholar i keep referring to insist that this morning prayer is not a precursor to r vigils but is actually the precursor of our own morning practice cathedral just held earlier because they had less sleep and gonna burling the day there was still not as i mentioned a
part of the monastic curses to have a vigil celebration when it was a private devotion
is now robert taft is what's more important to me just quote from her right out i liked the way he sums this up for us and the spirit of monastic prayer
far more important than the hours of the sun axes and their structure and content is the spirit of this pristine monastic prayer
from what we have seen it is obvious that the pure monastic office of the egyptians was less a liturgical ceremony or service then a meditation in common on sacred scripture
it's less liturgy than it is a common meditation and he quotes scholar wolf
stating the difference between the cathedral liturgy in the early monastic prayer in the beginning the liturgy was not part of the monastic life now of course he's i'm afraid new egyptian monasticism leaving out this whole other realm of the pious christians of leisure that we mentioned before the city the urban tradition is growing up
even this celebration of eucharist did not occupy and he's i occupy any special place at monastic life all this was an affair of the clergy not the monk the monks part was to pray in his heart without ceasing that was his opus dei that was his own faecium fasting watching
work contrition of heart and silence
again taft writing as a jesuit it's interesting you would say at this way so the dynamic of an egyptian monastic axis is more like indignation contemplation with colloquy done in common and we than what we are used to in later monastic offices in which samadhi becomes our praise of god
rather than being god's saving word to us
any questions about that
that's a real good place for me to take to break any discussion about that i'd love to hear it just think about this done with the kind of give us and joined the greek orthodox moon and had be weak ties to the the monastery and then you read to me and told me about the the alliance the
dave kids about some egyptian is if your ground law offices and these characters that keep going the others and a half cup of something else to the connected
did the of has all the target not here at the full that a over and over again in between each things and didn't possible
standing on hands and not going down and very profound barb catching the ground and didn't make the sign of the cross again so as a lot of the egyptian
still the it was the just it's fascinating to me i mean the to think of how we celebrated how they seven and it's something of the theology and spirituality being brought into practice obviously likes your one hundred and extra identity again so is it are are we listening to the word of god a responding to it are we singing
the word of god and praise but if if we're listening and then these long periods between to have all kinds of responses to this word and throwing yourself and the ground be voting repairs
and with strength of physicality of prayer there's the fighting began the western
his past words by the transpiration signing
oh on and similar with the word couldn't help it together sir
these things about african culture where
as i understood more that the stinky prayers julie
singing while working was very warm in ancient egypt and think that was really true the egyptian culture whose owner that modeling has a lot more egyptian the there was a kind of coming out of that very ancient civilization where you're working on gathered reads and
harvest long island working pelting pyramids with everybody sang to the guns
yeah there's a sense of the mundane the mundane and the sacred are not so separated from each other as that's gonna be a western thing then
director be completely divorced from each other richard through some stores still
no and was nervous
where the office is subservient to check your spiritual casks me to be in a human monster when do you do rules
offering different problems and masters and spiritual use and water
your drone out i tell you don't want to office for the next four days i want to work in this particular type of repetition earnings is so the inner action of the liturgy and the spiritual life is is an automatic flexible more open to change
well i also not have been it's in this monastic tradition mrs pre benedict
of monasticism hasn't received it's completely liturgical orientation yeah i mean western monasticism is going to receive a liturgical framework on top of the day and it hasn't done that yet a communist has the morning the evening yes but there's there's a much looser sense of that yeah
and also the idea of the pencil that it's amongst duty by thomas saint benedict to the monks duty to say the office eight times a day in this period stood amongst to the only to go past day is to pray constantly not to pray time today again there that tension
that's the one cor i didn't give you see i can find no quick
yeah here it is
different their fathers understood it this way the first monks and their turn understood it this way and this perspective to celebrate parents certain hours must have hardly seemed worthy of a christian in love with perfection as very early clement professed only scorn for the for the hours of prayer because the gnostic praise
the everywhere and always this ambitious ideal was soon to be the object of concrete activities in monasticism
atheist david animals
let's wrap the first restarting your game was his insistence
monastery he actually timed it to pause after shock to me time to chat now
so i'm just wondering how much that tradition to do list
i hadn't thought of it that we were going to talk a little bit about the early days it's fun day i'm alanna to so we'll see but chris that's after benedict you know so we inherit the practice of the divine office from from beranek we the hermits and the zettabytes both and come out these tradition or guy new practice the office
as as print the rule of st benedict but my guess would be and even odo yesterday we talked about i don't think this has ever going to be completely lost this spirit is going to is all of this is gonna come in to the practice of the office though the prayer time is gonna get shorter of will again we'll see somewhere that we talk about the rule bending
corey be didn't father he was so to the holy spirit
he was shot
you know without him