May 20th, 1998, Serial No. 00291

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Liturgy Class



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in knew that father his son holy spirit

get for tape
father you gave st bernard in a special love for the holy name of jesus by the help of his prayers may we always be alive with the spirit of your that we ask this through christ our lord
hi can i get a good rousing amen for the liturgy class take their isn't that right okay so
you missed a really important class last week we talked about the egyptian egyptian desert tradition which was the most fun for me so i was a to
here you will hear that week that's where you know a jewish today we all can he asked if he doesn't like yeah yeah because you mentioned your friend had been an encinitas okay
but where we're going
and i tried to spare you any more maps after has taught it so strongly was
but this is where we're going which the decisive element decisive era for the western monastic tradition of course it's gonna be the real sent back in our whole world revolves around that decisive moment a decisive bureau all these things are going to feed into a desk where we're going
the about yet very strongly is as western monastic tradition and that's where we're going today just to give you a review of
history mind you
i was
darn it hold on one second i'm sorry

yes heroes sorry like up
just that that quote again from robert taft that we ended last week with about the fourth century egyptian monastic office
in the beginning the liturgy was not a part of monastic life even a celebration eucharist did not occupying a special place in it all that was the affair of the clergy not the monk amongst partners to pray in his heart without ceasing so taxes far more important than the hours of this syntax axes in their structure and content is the spirit of
this pristine monastic prayer of the fourth century egyptian desert from what we have seen it's obvious that the pure monastic office of the egyptians was less of a tricycle ceremony or service than a common meditation on sacred scripture even goes so far as the caught indignation contemplation with colloquy done in common so we are there
that i wouldn't be surprised that a jesuit would say something like can perhaps
and then what we are used to it later monastic offices in which so many becomes our praise of god rather than god's saving word to us
that was happening in egypt it's not necessarily what's happening in the west
and this will be our our last piece feed into our talk and st benedict and we may get to that even today too
so there are many different sources we have not any of them real complete except for the rule of the master of different traditions that are going on in the west
now the first one the first major one is a fourth century document called the or or the monastery he which was a document that was very influential both to the rule of augustan who had his own rather urban urban monastic tradition coming out of carthage and the rule
of says areas
garlic monastic tradition now the or the monastery he
prescribes a full cycle of six hours for its monks matt intersex known lose scenario nocturnes
which employed they tell us responsorial and antipodal samadhi as well scripture readings so nothing too surprising about that
and then of course back to our friend cation
yeah no is
second and third book of the institute's he described some characteristic set of the monastic office in southern got his own monasteries now remember he spent nineteen years in the desert
goes back to
to reform his own form of monasticism taking back with him the information that you got in the experience he had in egypt
we are part of his institutes than he also describes what's going on and we derive some information of what's going on his own monasteries
little things he didn't conclude nocturnes with the loudest songs but had a separate morning office now that may not seem to significant but what we have here is two different office is going on in the morning so perhaps what he's doing is array developing this tradition as we haven't now of celebre
getting a vigil service not ending it with one forty one for it and one fifty member those are the loudest songs from where morning prayer gets name lodz but having a separate service allowed us so maybe he's combining both the the the ascetic tradition of nocturnes with the
santa vedic tradition of loud us you know in having celebrating both offices and not one of the other though recall the the office of the laura of the ascetics was not considered of a night office their nocturnes even though it was taking place in the middle of the night that was really there morning office but perhaps he took both of these to go
it is so many different trans going in
and then six century
not far removed from saint benedict in owl france now france
both says areas and a really in our oh really in of aro
in their description of their life they have nocturnes man's the little hours plus this other one that i've only seen one of her place due de cima you know that office at the twelfth our young and we the only place i've ever seen it is
the anglican tradition i saw the office of duo de cima now there's not a record of them celebrating vespers so that might have been there vespers service didn't catch on the contrary been way too many hours
and a really in ads on the office of prime and compline as well just a few moments were going to talk about the origin how those officers came
into their problems on the big feasts now this is a little tiny but important element on the big feasts the monks of are all
celebrated the cathedral hours for the people in a public oratory
so people would come to watch or participate with but mainly to watch the monks seeing the office what's developing was going to develop a the same thing is this notion of monks
peopling manning cathedrals so that the monks are celebrating the office for the people so that people can come and watched amongst celebrate the office to suit i'm sam not to the people are singing the office by themselves not that the monks or sing in the office as a domestic thing but the monks are doing it as a public
service this is going to really grow burke complains about this in the silent life
of course we have
rule of the rule for amongst from st columba
the celtic tradition who
went by way of england to gall to set up monasteries bringing with him the very strict celtic usage bringing with him the penitentiary painted and penitential where those books called
hey countries where he would they they are also codified different penances that you would do for different tribes was all this you can just look it up you know
well the one interesting thing about the the irish monks of course the irish are always the you kind of storm troopers of asceticism
they have an amazing number of songs in the night office in the winter one hundred songs
just for tonight office
i have you ever guess how and they probably have a little flask with them that even can for the fun
yeah yet all lamentations despite these skipped over the praise songs completely
yeah in spain
and this would be a little later this a be late late sixth century early seventh century we have isidore of seville fructose is of braga you like them visitor
and they have we have records of the spanish and monastic office that's similar to the office of southern gaul that none of that we're going to be as detailed us what we're coming up upon
our major source here is the infamous rule of the master
now for those who have been through dance before you know what the rule the masters i assume there's a few people who haven't had even a course on this i'm going to just explain a little bit about the rule of the master
and it's not quite sure the origin of the rule of the master
there's no unanimity concerning its development or its origin but one school of thought holds in an orange originated near rome
early sixth century
for a long time it was thought that the rules and master
i was derived from the rule of st benedict but more recent scholarship of this century has shown that is in fact the other way around the road the masters longer more complex rule and it looks as if st benedict lifted large portions of the rule of the master and it
proprio them into his room and stand
hum both the author and the place of the orange of origin of the road master are still objects of dispute and ratio who wrote it
there were suggestions that the the rule of the master could actually have been an earlier composition of benedict himself perhaps when he was living in in subiaco but it's it's kind of hard to prove
lays out a very strict liturgical cycle for his monks the master does
and he leaves them with these officers nocturnes man's the little hours meaning through sex that no no prime vespers and content they're all there
he does have an all night vigil the golden master
and every one of these officers have the same structure
every office so i agree the same way
there is and tiffany oil and or responsorial psalm eighty
there's a reading from st paul and a reading from the gospel and then a very interesting cathedral element not monastic element there are intersections in the office of the rural master
except for mountains and compline the rule the psalms were taken continuously so straight through according to their number without any regard for time date time and night except for mountains and conflict now we're going to see this tradition carry on also
like the desert tradition to rule the master also retains his practice of doxology prostration silent prayer each some have that now reveal free recall the egyptians did not use a dock challenge and can be very some in the row
the master every song as a doxology a prostration in a time of site

what often gets left out in our discussion of the monastic tradition is this is the urban
urban monks to urban monastic tradition what's growing out of the
devout christians of leisure
in the west
there were also monks living in the cities
aaron of course liturgically speaking they could not help but be influenced by the liturgical customs of the parochial churches that which they surrounded and in the urban monastic tradition there was especially in an adaptation of the practice of how the cathedral tradition so bit of both morning
and then the verb in monastic tradition is going to add the daytime daytime pair some scholars will say it specifically out of the urban monastic tradition of the celebration of the little hours is really going to take its final form form
and they had vigils which they call the their nocturnes for night office or the midnight office they may have added as well
so the urban monastic tradition is combining elements traditional among the ascetics with popular customs derive from the cathedral tradition
this mixture of elements that's gonna have so much influence on the office of the rule of st benedict especially what's called the old roman hours
mainly the only evidence we have about the old roman ours is from hints st benedict's
just a little aside there's also something called the old roman chance
most of the the body of gregorian chant that we know is not from rome is not even from italy most of its from guar was collected brought back to rome
the tradition of singing and wrong was we speculate much simpler much more straightforward thing and scholars are really know this kind of stuff can go through the gregorian repertoire and look for and find the old evidence of the old roman champions special specific different way that they sang
this is
ah connected with this old roman office which is very important as it was influential to benedict
quote from
and saying that the roman office was a source for the rule of st benedict's liturgical code we need to be precise about what we mean by roman to traditions existed simultaneously at room one the office as recited by urban monks in various
churches in the city
and another the cathedral tradition of the roman church followed by clergy and laity characteristically the roman monastic office included the common celebration of vigils and the little hours as the roman monastic office the cathedral element of rome was organized around the principal hours of laws and vet
aspers so the monks of rome the urban monks are celebrating vigils in the little hours the cathedral is celebrating laws and vespers benedick uses the roman monastic tradition as a basic source though
he occasionally manifests some influence from cathedral traditions well
so there were monastic foundations in the city of rome as early as sixth the third so that would be early fifth century
for thirty two four forty with six thesis rain
augusta and jerome earlier yet right of communities of virgins and monks living room and in milan but more importantly beginning in the lateran st john's ladder and cathedral and st peter's in the fifth century the great basilica of rome themself
abs began to be served by a monastic communities to these are not the monks living out the wilderness frugal monday these monks living right in the middle of civilization and serving and serving as
serving liturgically serving the urban community these are the predecessors the of the ancestors of when we call the cannons the three months detentions and the latter
ladder and cans for example there's also augustinian canons i think boston cannons
something like this i know you're probably tired of hearing all these curses kersey but just to give you an idea their vigils service was probably something like this a weekly distribution of sobs of one through one of seven vespers a continuous weekly distribution of sa
alms went away through one fifty
and then a continuous reading of scripture vigils so the whole bible would be read from the beginning of the year to the in
mountains lots of the little hours and compton all had fixed psalms twelve psalms that vigils except on sunday when there were twenty four six psalms that lodz six at vespers and three at each of the little hours and com still much longer office than we're used to
sock embedded in an rv thirteen thirteen three
benedict says

on the other days however a chemical from the profits it's profits as said according to the practice of the roman church this is barbaric talking about
now just a little side trip here
to talk about time and continent the reason i put them off to the side as they have an otter development and the other offices and curious history
and it's also another case where studying the history of the office becomes a little chapter and monastic history and actually if you haven't guessed by now it's really what i'm trying to a man's given those scoop of monastic history while talking about the office
the office of prime meaning primus and first our first hour of the day
first appears in kashan who mentions his existence in central rome's monastery of bethlehem so an urban tradition
as the name says he was supposed to take place at the aura prima the first hour of daylight so probably around six am
it seems to have evolved out of a combination of different monastic practices that came together eventually
something like this the monks would have a short rest
between the end of loudness and the beginning of the day's work remember laws has taken place mature than we would have
and that rest would conclude with a time of prayer
so have lodz take a rest at the end of that rescued
have a time of prayer before he would leave the dormitory and that time of prayer would generally be two or three songs because the sounds of the prayer book the book
later would develop some of the western monastic off as the traditions is then there would be a morning meeting in what's called the chapter room
various times different practices with develop something like this are reading of the list of martyrs to be commemorated would be read
job assignments would be given out followed by a prayer that everyone would do their job well you can do had couldn't be fun
see then the community would sit down and listen to a reading of a chapter of their monastic rule whatever their monastic rule happened to be with a commentary by their alma and abbott concluding with the blessing incidentally this is where the name chapter room comes from place where
the monks would gather each day to hear a chapter of their rule read with the commentary by the other
cheapest houses at least some travelers houses still do this practice don't they beat the meet every morning for a short for job assignments assuredly in a row of an explanation by the advertise we do on saturday morning that they would do it everyday
and on their way out they would stop by the cemetery to pray for the faithful departed this is kind of a combination of different traditions going on but not unlike what's going to develop as a western tradition now eventually these two observances are going to grow apart the prayer and
and the work assignments and eventually this prayer will be would begin more and more to take place in chapel on the way to work and the second will take place explicitly the chapter room
in the medieval english tradition this is get were a little far ahead of ourselves but i thought this was charming you might like this the prior to will have to make him listen to this tape in the medieval english tradition what would eventually developed with this practice is something like this great prime it was called
it was announced by a grand appeal of the bells for prime into choir
and then a lesser appeal was run for prime our choir when the deans and the cannons went out and stately procession to take their places around the chapel house
quite nice
first traces of koblin are really mentioned by st basil and he may just matches the simple practice of reciting some ninety before retiring to rest on nights when there wasn't a vigil office
so it nozzles tradition the vigil office wasn't taking place every night eventually though when vigils becomes irregular observance it gets attached to but the third watch of the night noise forget how to count that that would be like
three o'clock in the morning third watch of the night
it became accustomed when vigils became a regular observance it became accustomed to retire immediately
i lost a sentence in my computer
to retire immediately after vespers and use a short reading and is examined and the
it became accustomed to retire to rest immediately after the short reading an examination of conscience was follow the evening meal so they've been evening meal short reading examination of conscience go right to bed because you gotta be up early for vigils at the third third watch the night
so then all would retire in procession the dormitory reciting some ninety as they went among other sums that would cruise then with a prayer and a blessing by the abbot
so you see it really is a prayer to close the day and also being prayed in procession nice i rather like that tradition lot will see it develop further get fixed in the in rural same bedroom again but the roman office doesn't adapt this practice all into the eighth century and
it's the romanov is not benedict that will add the nuke demeter step famous gospel chemical knowledge your servant go in peace which becomes fixed as the key feature of content
so those are the last of our tedious little elements in leading up to the rule of st benedict and let's start getting our feet wet with that
hush straight here

okay what better way to start talking about the role of st benedict and by quoting master adult bert developed way
so the divine office is mainly written about in the rule of st benedict
in chapters eight through twenty
the vote way says this the abrupt manner in which benedict begins his treatment of the divine office has always astonished readers and commentators
one enters immediately upon a dry determinations about the auraria i'm without any preamble to indicate the meaning of this body of rubrics it's only turn the end of all this in chapter sixteen the pelvic thinks it well can expound the general plan of the hours and furnish scriptural justification for it
sure enough right after
chapter seven new be humility comes boom chapter eight the divine office at night followed by i'll just read the list of chapters for you
very dry juridical things the number of psalms of the night office the arrangement as a night office and summer celebration of vigils on sunday celebrations of the solemnity of loves celebration of logs on ordinary days celebration of vigils on anniversaries of sayings a time for saying alleluia
the celebration of the divine office during the day the number of psalms to be sung at these hours the order of saw many the discipline of sovereignty and then finally chapter your twenty the reverence and pair an emergency repairs the beautiful chair chapter
the only other thing we get about that has something to do with it would be than a chapter fifty two the oratory in the monastery
some things that got misplaced to get pushed for the end but
very different
interpretations of that
so benedict
has the the very well organized very rolling out
what i thought might be interesting is to put ourselves as we did with the egyptian monks in the setting what would we be like a typical day in better next time as close as we can get and this is some of it laid out again this book i keep recommending by c h lawrence medieval monastic
system here's how he described it
so for the bad addicted for the month of benedict's monastery
here's the difference remember what i just read you from taft
all this region again just to get fresh in your mind
in the beginning the liturgy was not a part of the monastic life and certainly for the egyptians liturgical ceremony and services we're just not important thing as egypt fourth century
so here we have barely two hundred years later in italy
the first task of monastic life is prayer in common
sahil different approach to the apples
the singing of the divine service in the oratory is the first task of monastic life what benedict calls the opus dei the work of god
is this liturgical
singing the divine office prayer and com
this prayer and common for st benedict provides the basic framework of the day and everything else is fitted around it
better it it gives elaborate labradors instructions for the celebration of these daily services why because they provide the basic framework of the day
one of the reasons there of great interest to the church story of to the history of christian worship lawrence says
is that they are some of the earliest detailed descriptions of the divine office we have so better to his fascination for a lot of reasons and benedict is going to influence
the western celebration of the divine office for months and nine months from here on out and protestant celebrations in divine office as well i can be influenced by st benedict's
here's the day so the monks we routine of worship began during the hours of darkness at two a m or shortly after in winter spot when you're going to bed as in advance
or at them or shortly after an winter and at three am or shortly after in summer so to am in winter three am and summer with the singing of the office of vigils are nocturnes later called mountains that poor office very schizophrenia
he the called vigils or nocturnes r memes
after that office the community did not go back to bed
there was a short interval at which the office of laws was sung at first light and then the office of prime at sunrise
then the monks pressed s not acquire and went about their work
again you see the distinction between first light and sunrise at first light laws as son it's not till sunrise their primes
there followed at intervals the relatively short offices of the dae sung at the third sixth and ninth hours and then the evening hour of vespers the day ended with a brief service of conflict which was son at sundown
the night office vigils nocturnes madden's whatever you wanna cod
was the longest and most elaborate of these services will certainly if it's gonna last from three am almost first light
on him service
it was divided into parts called nocturnes i'd like you to remember that term nocturnes
each of these nocturnes was different in a sense a different watch in the night
by the way we still use that we still have ourselves of vigils to nocturnes threesomes and reading as a doctrine
so is divided into parts called nocturnes each of which consisted of six psalms for lessons together with responses or meditative verses that related back to the subject of the lessons
this is the tradition that's gonna stay for the next thousand fourteen hundred years
on sundays and fees days the night office contained three nocturnes
six psalms a piece
so that's eighteen
and it must have taken nearly two hours to complete benedict's rule lays down elaborate instructions for the order of samadhi so to ensure that the entire salter is recited in the course of one week the lessons are all to be drawn from the bible and
and then scripture commentaries of the fathers in the course of the following centuries the office was greatly elaborate musically as well as textually but this basic pattern as it's outlined in the rule persisted it came to be the standard framework of daily worship in the western church is traces are clearly visible in all the service books protestant as well
as catholics that are derived from the medieval tradition
the time there's a little thing about the timetable here that i thought was kind of funny a timetable varied like the tides in response to the rhythm of the seasons
the computation of time that was followed was that of the classical antiquity which is still in use mr still in use in the sixth century by this reckoning the periods of daylight and darkness or each divided into twelve hours of equal length
thus in the winter the night hours would be longer than sixty minutes and the day i was be correspondingly short doesn't make sense you farms him it took me awhile to figure out what that meant
the night hours or one length for there's or another the night hours or in the summer the day hours would be long
longer than sixty minutes and the night hours would be relatively short the job of getting everybody out of bed at the correct time to the night office and ringing the bell for the canonical hours must have pose problems for the advent of mechanical clock hadn't come to the fourteenth century before this water clocks for widely used i had
never heard of the water clock some monastic customary is recommend astronomical observation as a check during the night clearly somebody had to stay awake during the night arouse the community at the proper time in the master's rule here's the thing i like that duty falls upon each tithing of the brethren in turn they watched the clock
walk in pairs less one of them fall asleep and when the our comes they go to the avid's bed and say lord open thou my lips tapping his feet gently until the wigs didn't you have to do that for further fire last year these two vigil he did tapestries he tapped his speech any lot of lips
that's true
so there's a there's a day we put ourselves in context anyway embedded it
technically speaking the biggest enemy innovations that benedict makes are these i have five for various importance one is that he put variable songs and all the hours of the day accepted complex which he put in the form that it it's going to last for centuries
every day there would be different psalms at every office which is not the case you know the offices
carpet stays the same for ninety one thirty four
lodz here's another thing is going to last forever
has a standard form it has five psalms that are sung every day with various things in the middle every day opens with fifty some sixty six psalm fifty and closes with one forty eight one forty nine one fifty one forty eight one for no one fifty come to be regarded as one song
the loudest sound us will see in the pre vatican two monastic or prevent to obvious and general when forty eight when for an hour if if they are all together with one and front of the beginning in one at the end of all three
for lodz psalms are going to be picked according to the proper time of the day
not a continual which is interesting mrs anomalies gained from the cathedral not getting from the monastic tradition
if you have any interest in this at all they do present the very complex curses of the roman of the barracks office and the rule the master in an appendix in the rb
second thing
we'd better addicted he took out all repeating songs she would never do the same song twice a week
but you would do the whole salter in a week
three in regards to vigils customarily for day in day out he reduced
he reduced the number of
the visual songs
and also gives us our trend present understanding of this office of vigils by abandoning the all night vigil which the master was observing
and by this time was a universal custom among monks in the east as well as and in italy
i'm not an a great feast but on weekdays and on sundays but weekly on sundays and
so benedict fixes its structure and duration as an office that comes at the end of the night
it's called the night office or night vigils but it still to occur after a full night's sleep
perhaps this is just another sign of benedict's moderation
also one notes that it's with benedict at this sunday vigils takes on a little different character
it specifically always anticipates the resurrection by adding this third nocturne where the resurrection vigil which he gets from the cathedral tradition or what's that
the third nocturne consists of three chemicals with other years as a refrain for readings from the new testament for his sponsors and tedium and are reading from the gospel
you may recognize this as being influential in the office that we celebrate right now you know as the second doctor and we celebrate on sundays as canticles not the songs
and of course
the tedium reading from the gospel so this is this is a better and innovation in the monastic tradition but he's getting it from the cathedral this always gives me a little bit of charm when i when i realize that we're celebrating that office very soon as they celebrated in fifth and sixth century
the forest thing benedick brings in is the use of hymnody in the office i think i've mentioned before the umbro xian and st ambrose when of our big heroes
diabetic specifically refers to them as ambrose yano
referring to st ambrose who is credited with writing many hymns in his lifetime and by some considered to be the father western hymnody of of christianized this form
it's not known where better to to got this idea to sing hymns at the office because it's not found anywhere else and it in the massive tradition it's not found there's no evidence of an indiana monastic tradition but there's speculation and mean if come from lorena or from the land itself ambrose's home or else you the
but it is an innovation of his now i seen in our place this him and it will stay that way until vatican two it comes ah
this comes near the end of the office and i can wear because after before the bit addictive but it's right around the benedictus is it remember i think it's right
i think it's after the reading response rate than at him and then the benedictus now we think of it as the entrance thing but it isn't a very odd it was good for us and a very odd place in the office i'm still way weaker thousand years
the last thing a benedick ads in
is the recitation out loud of the our father this is better next innovation for a very specific
reason he gives it a spin that i really like we're going to have to end them as i think in the room and office there is evidence that he had had was said silently by the people at the end of vespers what does productive to thirteen tomorrow
again this is a practice that's going to carry on until vatican two office
assuredly the celebration of laws and vespers must never passed by without the superior reciting the entire lord's prayer at the end for all to hear
why because thorns of contention are likely to spring up he specifically does it for the sake of the community
because of the ending of the lord's prayer thus warned by the pledge they make to one another that thus warned by the pledge they make to one another in the very words of this prayer forgive us as we forgive our trespasses made their cleanse themselves of this kind of vice to a specifically a monastic practice to use the laura
it's prayer to make sure they're gonna get along with each other and forgive each other the beginning of the day that the end of the day it's really beautiful we had some of what of a talker that when i have to but when that was also said practitioner around sequences they still do it like this at this it up into vatican
ooh was stood on this way and other celebrations
this is a celebration of laws and ordinary days and other celebrations only the final part of the lord lord's prayer is set above that all may reply but deliver us on the evil so what direction this is the custom of sort of ha murmuring the lord's prayer
until the abbot at the end of it says forgive us our sins as we forgive those who trespass against us lose that the patient up to their and all the monks add but deliver us from every evil
it very interesting thing that's murmured the hallway does that last part has brought up and then the monks would answer so they themselves make that pledge to follow alone and to be
protected against the thorns of contention which will likely spring up between the monks
i think that's a good post a break on that
any questions about that i might be able to answer
notice if you're getting more and more complex more and more little details about things but
okay for a good father to son to the holy spirit as it what else do you been in business and ever shall be world without end amen

indonesia father son holy spirit
tata to father of all you send your spirit as promised to bring together with long all the evil is driven a pint
strengthen us to work for your blessings of liberty and peace in the world grant is to christ home
ah good so today second half of talking about the v which we began last class because three weeks ago
so if you recall
i mean the you mentioned a cure of the innovations that paramedics brought in they don't seem so striking at first glance
in one sense you could say he just took the old roman office and added some things to the r m but the main things he did at is for a practical standpoint that he took out variable songs he put variable psalms that all the hours of the day except for compensate never had the same songs every day
that he took out any repeating psalms and are laid it out so much so that the whole salter could be read in the course of the week though this will become a value of monks to come
this value of had the whole salt into week now it looks like a kind of and a heady obligation to be able to say that many but remember there were traditions of monks were saying of the entire solve their every day so i didn't see like months and kind of a modest in comparison
also benedict reworked vigils and gave it its distinctive style set number of songs and gave sunday visuals it's distinctive resurrection seem ended this thing of all night vigils and held at the end of the night's sleep in some places that have been just an all night vigil
he also in this funny little thing introducing reducing hymns into the hours and we we find them for us it's kind of an odd place it was after all the songs we've done it before the chemicals when you were called ambrose on the hymns of st ambrose
and then he also added this recitation out loud of the lord's prayer with a very specific reconciliation bend to it and i we've talked about the practice of at how the avid himself would recited in the monks only coming in the very end remind them to forgive each other
we'd like to talk about something that may seem a little technical the beginning but again we talked about what their life was like so i thought we might spend a little time trying to imagine how they might have performed this office how they might have actually done it themselves
get all centers around and what st benedict means by the word that father matthew teases me about all the time antiphon but not exactly sure what they meant by the word antiphon and to fun said and an antifa
elephant and a funny there are many different uses of the word even listed in the rule of st benedict's that you know what we mean by the end of fun
we mean something that's the word means and take photos with the the right words before the sound the that that would be but we would say before we say the rest of the parent would sing me for us and that's technically an infant in our terms but for them it could mean these different things that could mean a real
sorry or as we do responsorial psalms of mass some scholars speculate and fun meant alternating inquires i don't know where they get that something and if it meant a whole song some people think addison met a set of three songs it's is different interpretations of what better an men for that when prefer
romance once probably this the argument that convinces me the most anyway
is that add often refers to a psalm with a refrain
how did they do that re-frame still up for grabs and it's been argued to no conclusion by people have a lot of time on their hands target about such things like that but it also centers around and watch em can ah
the different verbs that benedick uses to describe the performance of the songs
at least three four times he uses the word contouring to sing the songs one time uses this beautiful verb which i don't know if as anywhere else salary p s a l e r e to some they som they sound the readings that's beautiful sama dies as
poison would get the word from that twice he uses the word these ditching i'm saying an italian and lab with this survey teaching to say but what do you make of this chapter eleven
three in one translation anyway
the gloria is said by the one singing songs don't quite know what's going on so he goes back and forth benedict between using the words sung and said
i'm the one scholar butler points out as i've pointed out before that it i didn't necessarily make fast distinctions between these two things between singing and saying and putting ourselves again in their mindset maybe even for benteke there were no rigid rules about whether things should be song or should we sell
ed and we don't really know what the chanting was like at that time there's some evidence of this thing i think of it before called the old roman chant that existed pre gordian and some of it is still in the gregorian repertoire and was a very simple and mr wrecked on tone or style champ
singing always on the same note not moving up or down with no melody really to it
but let's also remember that ancient languages latin as well as greek in even syriac didn't always distinguish between these different kinds of vocalizing resigning as opposed to chanting member to a call you again that close connection i'm always talking about
out the close connection between the recited word and the beginnings of music that thin line between singing and speaking windows recitation become singing for example what we do it vigils in speaking together in measured cadences
is in technical says it's music are ready because it's measured sound it's organized son in the broadest sense of the word your are also such things as speech choirs and your heard those perform i was part of a speech clarinets fabulous we are recited together the carl sandburg porn we are the p
people the mob the crowd the mass units are that the poem and we had different ways of resigning it together a different people take them price but it was speech but you could not distinguish that for music in this sense of is is already registered so we think of it in terms that way
the earliest monastic tradition not unlike you know the old curmudgeon st jerome and many other early christians were opposed to music
but even that didn't mean they are opposed to chanting so they have strictures of by using music but they didn't necessarily opposed chanting whatever that meant they were opposed to so-called worldly music they didn't like musical instruments especially at any of the christian liturgies and initially there
also opposed to non scriptural texts mainly one would speculate because it had these connections with pagan theater rights instruments and music and a lot of the hymns
a little slowly breakdown cursed there were a little stiffer than the than the psalmist him or herself was me with sultry and hard from drums advancing pupils and bible
and of course it's it as i mentioned it's it's ambrose who wrote some of the first non scriptural texts
to be accepted in the surgical music so it's interesting the benefit uses the umbro xian anyway at least according to our friend robert taft here he says quote we can take it as certain that benedict and those before him did not intend the hours to be spoken
though we know nothing of the nature of enchant in this early period
courses is pre-k koreans if you're having a if you imagine them singing the lung bella's medica green
refrains get that on your head maybe something as simple recto toner
albert devote way
m writes that the matter of performing so many that's used almost exclusively today that of alternating two sides of the choir or in our case alternating cantor cantor's inquire was not come better next time this is a practice that developed later
he says that probably the psalms were recited by soloists with the assembly participating in the form of some kind of response or antifa as i said now this would be a little closer than to this egyptian tradition
where the word is being proclaimed and there's a response
could be taking the form of are free after vs you know like are some sixty six letter people's praise you will go load all the pupils you the counter seems the versions in between so there's still participation
i'm or it could be just an elephant that was sung at the very beginning of the somme and a soloist would do the rest of the sound of the alien and we have remember we have two problems here
we're pretty spoiled and the fact that we can pick up a book or xerox copies or to do that the two cops here are one literacy
not every month being able to read he didn't have any education to be a monk
the second problem being than the scarcity of printed copies or manuscripts of scripture the psalter you see these beautiful a an illuminated manuscripts of the monks gathered around you know one salter four or five monk singing together when they're not going to be able to replace their cell phones even as easily as we are there it's taking us along too
add into this again just to get a sort of picture of the relation of the monk to his prayer and among to the text ad into this the fact that the time allotted to lectio divina for the monk is also considered to be a time you commit individual scripture passages to memory
so this is as much a practical thing as anything we don't have to keep dragging out the books when that to me books if you the sounds memories one soloists could stand up and sing the song by memory chant the samba memory
this does though imply a whole different relation to the text but i was thinking of there is you should remember the name of the movie some movie where
some evil despotic government
stole all the books is that the what and you see these pictures of people walking around ma'am
and so what they do is memorize these books is that it teach on person viewpoint as to veterans a book so they walk around and never they reciting the book over and over and over again so i never gets lost and i i kind of have this idea my head of the monks doing their legs ceo and that rising these psalms you know every month being in charge of the song so
are there are some sixty six with this beer day now of course that's all speculation and my heart but i've kind of like the image of it and especially this idea of this kind of relation to the text
bet it it does say that they are not to use antiphons if the community is small in verse seventeen and in in in i'm sorry chapter seventeen and also in chapter twelve he refers to performing the songs in direction
so probably have to continue small they were just recite the whole song together in some way so i waited the this may be picky picky little points but for me it's interesting to try to put ourselves there and see what their relation to children execution of these psalms was
for all of benedict's legislating of the office and you see quite a few minor details legislated he does not specify the paracord piece for the scripture lessons
he doesn't tell us what scripture lessons or to be there so we could presume as again our friend taft does that they were alexios continual books chosen according to the season and liturgical year which as we do here know
later on when the office gets solidified the
for certain by trinity times you will have the lexia brevis you'll be told exactly what reading to do it all at all hours at all days to or sixty five days a year but benedict does not do that that's an addition layer by church
there's another interesting aspect to the office and are be that i want to spend it would actually a little bit of time on here this gets a little more somewhere in between the practice in the whole understanding of prayer in better next time
and that's in relation to the somme prayers
this should have some residents with things we've talked about him and some of the past few classes especially the egyptian monks
the rb twenty four and five greets

his verse four and five
of the chapter on reverence in prayer prayer should therefore be short and pure unless it is prolonged of inspiration of divine grace in community however prayer should always be brief
and when the superior gives the signal all should rise together
what most of our scholars here are assuming benedict's talking about is what's called the somme prayers
it doesn't seem to be referring to the whole office for doesn't seem to be retrained as the improvised chairs on one's own
the that understand what's going on here let's realize we're not that many hundred years from the desert tradition is egyptian tradition which benefits inheriting and we know that benedick knows a lot about it
especially the desert monastic tradition athanasius cash it in nigeria if you'll recall for example i'll make reference to a prayer that follows the song
and becoming a tradition for example each some is read by the soloist standing and then ear after each som there was time for private prayer with the arms extended than a prostration and then a prayer proclaimed a collect or a prayer
so better appears to be in this tradition
perhaps notwithstanding the prostration we just don't know but there is a signal he does say
when superior gives the signal should rise together but there's no indication that they did the the prostration in arms extended
ah the roadmaster does keep that just just before them he does keep the prostration but there's some kind of a vocal prayer offered by one for the all
when the other reasons i like to explore this a bit is because it has simulation also to our understanding of the collect and the eucharist
so this is called a collect and the word even works for me in english as the word collect
the prayer offered by one for all and there are two parts to it
here as the same as our practice at eucharist is brief period of silent personal prayer following the song
and then a colleague and oration or prayer that's read by the presiding minister
what's the purpose of these collects well as eucharist the presider says let us pray and in the call for a cause which step pause for for everyone to find their individual prayer for everyone to gather their own intercession their own focus and then the
residing minister collects them together and articulate the one care of the community where the same things going on here
so the colleagues are away for the community to appropriate though specifically with the psalms the meaning of the somme in the light of jesus life ministry and mission to appropriate the meaning of the somme in the line of the pascoe mystery in the line of the church in the light of their own lives
as monks
so just specifically referring to the psalms not all as we heard from the in her classes from sister irene not all sums are self evidently christian as you might have seen so the sound prayer with colleagues will start to cry
christianize the song spread a christian spin on it if you will
and what happened in a in around somewhere between the fifth and seventh century these prayers that were written specifically to go with certain songs began to be themselves collected as they began developing significantly you can imagine my
same declaration of what what kind of prayer to use for some seventy and i saw her writer
well these collections of saw a song prayers or some colleagues were written down and circulated around number of different churches and among the different monasteries and this is not unlike the origins of the sacramento
a whether or not these specific collections of salt or colleagues were known a monastic circles in the early days is debated cash and cash it seems to be familiar with them but sybaritic makes no direct reference to their to their collections though he knew john cation so he may have had his hands
zombies as well but he's saying prayer should be short less inspired by the holy spirit so it seems to be that he didn't know these written down months and somebody was making them up on the spot so kind of a spontaneous pair the hear this psalm is a period of silence and then somebody offers a
prayer relating back to that song giving it and in in the light of and in christian ecclesial
benedict may not some people say the better they may not after i have used any vocal som pairs but i'm all scholars agree that there was a time for personal pair after each song was they were an intrinsic part of the monastic tradition
we don't know as i said the monks may have stood with their arms extended nation practice with beranek doesn't bring it up or they may have done a full prostration that it doesn't didn't bring it up the deeper point though is this understanding of the somme itself which i've mentioned before and and won't talk about again
we have a tendency to see the psalms as prayers themselves back to that with the ancients had still this subtle distinction
there are those who speculate that at some period between the time of the desert fathers and benedict the whole understanding of the characters samadhi is already beginning to change perhaps because of the influence of the of the urban monastic tradition and the urban cathedral tradition on monastic prayer
so as i've said before for the age of the earliest monks the psalms as any piece of scripture where themselves an invitation to prayer they were the word of god being addressed to human beings
and this has given expression especially we have the practice of the solo recitation of the songs were all are listening in silence
the real training camps after the song in this silence of the heart as a response to having heard the word of god proclaim
we could i loved with sister irene said when she was here to listen to your brothers proclaiming the word of god so even were chanting back and forth what i'm hearing on your lips as you proclaim the word of god were proclaiming it all together and then for it this tradition the real prayer comes afterwards
so the oldest monastic tradition the song was not regarded as the you as the human homage rendered to god so much as god's message to humanity the cathedral tradition know the solve itself is considered
it's the inspired word of god after all the spirit songs on our other than on our lips so like other parts of scripture the sounds were readings that environment encourage prayer of the heart of very contemplative stance
now after the are be when deed office tends to get legislated when the office tends to be the same for everyone this is going to slowly disappear
even in the monastic offices in the ceremony itself becomes a prayer rather than a prelude for it
in this understanding this altar contains not only the inspired word of god to us but also the inspired affairs of us to god that's an equally valid way of approaching this songs but it's different
there's a courtier from holds here ever seen this this version of and biggest interesting
oh and be seen
in the psalms then the personal prayer identifies them so identify themselves with the psalmist who are regulars regularly called the profit so whoever sings the songs speaks prophetically and the one praying makes their own the praise and thanks for trusting play that
rejoice you are bitter complaint in distress of the psalmist so there you see the somme as being regarded as
a prayer itself
lay around what's going to happen though is that the psalms themselves with a started to become seen as prayers there's they're going to be no longer a need for this response a solid periactin it's kind of gradually disappear
and just go right into these song prayers because they still somehow need to be appropriated as christian and as ecclesial
but let's before we get away from this ancient tradition because we've recovered it now
let's remember that ancient most ancient of ways and basically but i like what it die like to think of it as being three movements to it one the some of the reading awakens to a personal response even in community awakens in interior prayer of the heart that
gets gathered up into the words of three a public career in the collar or the solemn prayer
which are the important way for the prayer to appropriate the deeper meaning of the songs
when i brought along here and i wanted to show you i did some i keep watching for these in rome and office

how this tradition has stayed with us of these colleagues pointing back to the song we don't use the somme prayer here i don't know how many monasteries do actually did you use an actress and give som peers as i think that most monasteries don't
but that tradition would wind up becoming part of the room and office this idea of the somme pair the colleagues being at the end of the song
no proof of this but i'm assuming that many of these prayers that are still in the roman office come from ancient days
i thought i'd show you a couple of and for example here is some thirty five oh lord plead my cause against those with against my foes fight those who fight me take up your buckler and shield
now that i am in trouble they gather they gather in mock we will take me by surprise and strike me and terry pieces how long we look arms saved my life and these raging bulls my soul from these lines
yeah yeah yeah the somme prayer lord you rescue the poor from their oppressors and you rise to the aid of as you rose to the aid of your beloved son against those who unjustly saddam's life so is the prayer is making sense of that some in a light of jesus
look on your church as we journey to you and then taking that same song and making it apply and increase you away so it's personal it's kristic it's ecclesial and the put the poor and the week may recognize they help you provide and
the claim you're saving x here's another one
some one thirty one
lord my heart is not proud are hotting my eyes my i have not a for things to great know marbles beyond me the prayer is addressed directly to jesus on this one so that we know how this someone thirty one that what it has to do with us and one has to do with jesus lord jesus gentle and humble of heart
you declared that whoever receives a little child and your name receives you and you promised your kingdom to those who are like children so we have that song we have that and in in others understanding in the line of jesus and in the light of ourselves as followers of jesus never let pride rain in our hearts but may the father's compact
reward and embrace all who willingly bear your gentle yoke would be i thought of doing this and of course is one of my twenty seven projects that i'll never get to his i would love to see these all laid out and order and then see how the church takes each of these some prayers and points back to the somme and then were worried in the psalms it would give
us some kind of understanding or even how we can approach to procreate the songs were singing and praying ourselves whose one more i picked for we could go on on with this but i'll try not to
this when i really like shows so we have some seventy seven recalling god's work
you know it i cry aloud to god cry aloud to god that he may hear me in the day of distress i sought the lord my hands were raised at night without ceasing
you gotta do people like a flow flocked by the hand of moses and aaron the some prayer points back father you established your ancient covenant by signs and wonders so reporting back to the original covenant from which this song comes but more wondrously you confirmed the new
one to the sacrifice of your son so tiny all the new and how that some applies to us as christians of jesus three guide your church than it says through the pathways of life that we may be led to the land of promise and celebrate your name with lasting praise these are wonderful in that way
i i have to pay i will appreciate them more after studying this than i did originally but the add that idea of time taking this psalm which doesn't seem to sarah be in our context seeing it in the light of jesus because it was probably the pr jesus lips also seeing it in the light of the church and seeing it
the lightest meet individual how it applies straight through to judaism obviously early after every song
no generally like morning prayer of the after the bomb syria
yeah nano is a series so morning that there's one after seventy seven there isn't one after the chemical and is one after some ninety seven i think they can act as a as the psalms and i have to the chemicals
sixty two sound per sixty seven sound fair can't called no center also to the early to is if you try
wait wait with next point next fight
page three
and here's the connection with our salter
i can't take credit for it though i can't take credit for it i meant to bring one in could you would choose go grab a soccer for me what of our one of the office books francis it's not offer the papers at
a question
the software's
i don't know
so they're starting to become they're starting to become collected in you know in collections between the fifth and seventh century by the time the office gets solidify the council of trent their permanent yeah
and those who use the roman office their permanent to me that the same when it's over and over again so i had this great moment this weekend of getting doctor ford and thomas mattis together which meant more to me than you might have known because of course thomas almost single handedly
the italian office together and then passed that job on to me to do it in english and i based it you know almost completely on his work i hadn't realized just how much of a thomas had done to me he claims credit for you know ninety percent of understand done italy
and i've ever before i had ever visited here i was a dinner at ford's house once use my professor down there and he's using has but you should see with the canal least do with their songs and you brought out one of the old old office books from here and there was some of the first was thomas had done and they had these beautiful doxologies
that pointed back to the song remember us marveling over to dinner one night and then though would i know this for years later would be my job to finish that same project but maybe you haven't even noticed it but i hope you have what thomas has done and i asked them he said this was all his idea filing cabinets matters
to do this in a he says maybe somebody else did it in another monastery thirty somewhere before but it was completely his idea to do it what he has done is right and doxology at the end of every song that points back to the somme and christianize is it in some way now normally for example when we read
the and office
you had with clerk to the father to the sign the holy spirit was the beginning is no nourishing the movement at the end of every psalms the same one the genre of the grail songs are laid out to have three different doxologies that can be used at the end of them and you know in the morning and vigils we say praise the father of the word and spirit with three who are when in heaven after
every song but as thomas laid out as the commandments officers laid out in italy every psalm every canticle has a that sounds you've written specifically for it and they're just they're so wonderful my favorite one is from the is it is it's easter vigils your rage or lord is
against our sin your wrath against the dying of the light so taking that rage and and and wrath and turning it and even making sense out of that
i also particularly like the to for
for some thirty three i will bless the lord at all times god's page on my lips that he writes we have seen the true light received the heavenly spirit we found the to safe who worship the trinity who has saved us and at the end of the second part of some thirty three we believe lord that you are the cry
rice the son of the living god remember us saw holy one when you come into your kingdom the other ones i love our from someone sixteen somebody remember where for me to one sixteen
thursday june
so if you have the sign up for us
thursday awesome beautiful ones who visited the first ones i saw
behold them a my heart of a flows and noble words to the king i'm a sweep the songs i have made my tongue is numbers and then nimble is the pen of ascribed praise to you jesus christ king of justice the fairest of the children of earth anointed with holy spirit so pointing back to that a night and i'm in
one is jesus the second part of the song which of course when we use these sound we use the first part refer to jesus is the second part often to refer to marry the second part of some forty five the an odata give you to my words forget your people in your father's house which is a response or how many thanks for the feast of the assumption as
anyway is solitaire points back to jesus but this time jesus through mary to jesus christ son of married and the father of all the living we sing in the holy spirit glory to god on high
now what's going on here is basically
the same thing that that we've been talking about they don't hear they are using this beautiful ones for one for one sixteen which one fourteen one fifteen
some from from holy week this is used for the many of the intervening chance for hollywood palm sunday and holy thursday especially i love the lord for the largest heard the cry of my appeal the lord was attentive to me the day i call the doxology oh come let us sing the father's glory four he fried his son
from the to the god of compassion and mercy and as the holy spirit for the second half
he was right there with me on this one this would just about i lost them and i read this the first time because this is the is used for holy thursday
and he sure enough thomas gets it when christ lifted up the cup of salvation and called on the name of the father he was heard because of his reverence and became for the source of salvation that's the you recall this responsible salmon filets thursday is our blessing campus of communion in the blood of christ how can i repay the lord for
good this to me the couple of salvation emery's see they're just fabulous just fabulous
so they work in the same way as yes
ah i could not give the exact years i think he was began work on the project in the late sixties early seventies that it's a to guess that i think he got the italy and sixty seven or so
what these things are doing is the same thing that the salt their colleagues meant to do they are not always prayers that i was addressed to god not it was addressed to christ often in the same through the same voice of the songs
but in many of the traditions now course we're any monastic houses are trying to bring back this long pause of silence after each song so once it's all that we are ready get the christian message even before we take that little moment for individual meditation on
what are the quote something from an opportunistic is really necessary
yes i like yeah can we go so albert devote way says
we mustn't have been obliged to little to recognize in the prayer meaning that moment of silence
it's too little to recognize the just as the strong beat in the spiritual summit of the office we must go further and understand that that alone is the prayer of the office in the proper sense
sang songs is not itself praying admittedly many of the songs and prayers but a great numbers stemmed from different genres eulogies of those who fear the lord meditations on the destiny of the just a wicked epic rehearsals of the exhibition the conquest instructions and wedding songs addressed to the king messianic journal articles but none of all that is
as prayer in the proper sense even the songs of praise or ordinarily presented as appeals thrown out to us loud as discourse is addressed to god it's remarkable that the monastic office pays no heed to the different genres but it is this prayer at the end of the song that we say is the proper prayer
it's going on during their time
what's the proper role of samadhi the office it prepares for prayer it invites one to pray for making a nibbling little point here but i hope you see where i'm getting out with this
the the songs as we remark usually occur without selection
this author has chiefly the word of god spring's and so here's this quote from says areas saying the psalms is like sewing in the field prayer is like bearing is like bearing seat and covering it by plowing a second time so even says areas has this notion of you so if you cultivate cultivated fields for
first of all by the samba day we carry on its aurora and aurora praying and plowing a little plan where's we can get the
almost finished so we're not going this be our last time talking about better to go we did give to classes because he's such a monstrous presence in our tradition but in really for the whole west in one sense as i said before the office of benedict is no more than a revision of the rome and the old rome and curses with an addict
one of a few elements from the rule of the master but here's what's really important about benedict especially when our be starts getting on
imposed on monasteries throughout the european empire
monasticism begins to receive a specifically liturgical orientation from the importance that's given to it by benedict so western monasticism is going to receive it's specifically liturgical orientation from benedict
the urban monks that surf cathedrals and big in basilicas had become clerical lived and were bewildered will speak about this more next class and the office is seen as a service to the community at large but in benedick the office still has this purely domestic character without any reference to
ooh ecclesial responsibility
now some see in the rural st benedict a tendency to make separation between the opus dei and other activities of the monastery and something this is a dangerous tendency of let's just see it this is just there is what's going on and been waiting for weeks to bring and finally this article by aquanaut a feed it's time for off another
on the oratory the monastery

in the early days of monasticism as we talked about the oratory is serves as a place not only for prayer but it's also a place to keep equipment for work and during the liturgy the hours the monks are weaving ropes and mats
perhaps just as a period to keep the monks from dozing off but there's also this idea that a prayer is not removed from the work and they would be praying the psalms in their cells while they're reading mats as well the benedict has a very strict line on that in this chapter fifty
when he says
the oratory should be in fact what it is called and nothing else should be done or stored there so benedict's established and very firmly that you don't work during the office that there's a separate place from the rest of the monastery this for prayer i he's going to say that all the things that the monastery should be utilities and sacred vessels of the ah
author so as not to see no else nothing else to say good at the useless holiday but there is this idea of of a separate time in a separate space and sacred space for praying that's not involved in the rest of the day you see the little point of difference there
as a great realist says went of says
he separates the opus dei and manual labor both as to time and to place just as he creates separate hours for lectio divina by this means this is a positive spin on he gives each element it's own space and value and so she says he achieves it a synthesis and a deeper sense
others see in this a danger though that the prayer is being removed from the as it's the holy thing that amongst do and ever been and nothing else he is wholly but certainly what's happening with benedick is your starting to see that the uses this word pencil or the do the do measure what a monkey supposed to do
you see to race here
two forty eight
in a rule listen st benedict the office is beginning to be spoken of as a pencil or do measure of amongst service which he is to say by himself as well as he can if he's unable to be present and the proper time
in the centuries which followed there's going to develop an increasing distinction between the opus dei and other monastic our occupations and thus it came about that the hours of the office were no longer organically related in people's minds the natural divisions of the day they became by the age of
rubrics which followed the council of trent it had become an obligation soup gravity to recite a fixed quantity of texts with legal exactitude a performance through which was attributed kind of efficacious this almost x popery operatic or just by having you side recited those psalms you have fulfilled your obligation
now this concept is bound up with an ecclesiology that's very juridical and character and which was shared by monks as well as everyone else especially since there's also priests monks are in fact that the be deputed by the church to give praise to god officially in its name but the
that's a later development this mandate is not clearly distinguish from the original commitment of the office of the month which we hope is still there had better next time which arises in virtue of their monastic profession to make form of praise in the name of that church the essential element of monastic life is the confused the role of the monk and the canon for
the month it's we're seeing already creeping into benteke this idea of a pencil it's you do with your measure something you have to do but there's still this character butter of a domestic prayer nine as my obligation under the weight of sin to pay for the church but we because we are community pray together it's part of our life you
the creeping in and benedict and maybe because of on the augustinian canons around you know
they should subtract without also mentions augustan here
and instead of the hours i'm marking an intensification in the effort toward unceasing prayer the open day and real saint benedict is already taking on the character of a prayer is performed at certain times proper times for the purpose of sank to find the hours and divisions of the night but not
necessarily is justice intensification and unceasing prayer
we've lost some of that
the office of the real saint benedict is not going to immediately succeed in supplanting all the other room at usages
but beginning with the carolingian reform will talk a little bit about this and by the eleventh century for sure benedict's office is going to supplant all other monastic office and become the single monastic office of the western church until the second vatican council of course eventually it's going to wet itself to be going in chance
in this is gonna go hand in hand with the imposing of the rule of st benedict and monasteries throughout the west
what's funny about this and were better want to be too hard or benedict himself is there's a certain irony in the fact that benedict says in chapter eighteen we urge above all that if by chance this distribution of the sandwich should displeased anyone let him arrange it otherwise if each hedges better