History of Christian Spirituality

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Part of "The History of Christian Spirituality" class




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some senses of up to now it's been sort of obscure that has been rediscovered and it's a beautiful example of early christian writings were not sure the author or the date or to comments written and he's a real disadvantages
the first thing scholar wants to know is who loaded to me when in what circumstances but concerns or this film's out the context and that you can understand every paragraph you can understand what's behind this or that when we don't have that will just document but we have some hypotheses that are interesting
there's this patristic scholar undressing
and he's come up with a very scholarly state had author of yes she's certainly quadratus who is mentioned in
mentioned in eusebius remember eusebius is the father of christian history really well he says there's this great christian quadratus who wrote an apology to the emperor hadrian
andreas and says this is no other than the author of this document is no other than that quadratus in this document is none other than that apology so that would really give us the author more or less the date and to whom it was written now question thinks that this hypothesis is really quite possible
and if you very interesting
so the trick to no one less than an emperor healthy this is very interesting so that's what this has been all been demonstrated and this is one of the things that might come up in future years future breakthroughs in this regard or if it is quadro to send you have to distinguish a first part of the document and a second
right for those of you we've looked at over it will there's a part to the homily that's thought to be much later and tacked on and maybe of apologies this is the kind of technical work of scholars to it's very important because later teams will come out on the second part that were mentioned in the first few you think wow why is that
well it's an entirely differently it was tacked on it would soon
ah this is a different genre literary genre then what we've been dealing with up to date with clement and ignatius those are letters and we've noted that a letter has its own particular style it's an approach it's own limits and its own richness we said
a rhetorician she's very conditioned by that specific circumstance i'm angry with my brother because he forgot my mother's birthday i write a letter to him not that letter isn't the final statement of my may maybe very deep loving her poor with my brother but it's a very personal spontaneous expression of that moment you idiot why did you
forget to read birthday
ah so the intensity of the letter then very important to whom it's written remember with clement with ignatius and with paul it's a very committed christian pastor right into other christians that's very important to the faith is always principles
now here we've got something entirely different we've got what is called an apology we've got a christian sitting down writing to a professed pagan
and wanting to dialogue
he talked a great deal today about dialogue with to be sure to the dangers whether we shouldn't talk with other christians here's a serene serious committed dialogue with a nonbeliever and becomes a very very important genre literary start now this has very different preset
positions for know better it's not that immediate personal thing that so depends upon the immediate context my brother last week forgot the bush tax rather i sit down at my desk i tried to think through a very reason structured defense of christianity priests
temptation of christianity of its nobility of it's of dignity of of why it shouldn't be prosecuted heads to can save big to someone who is not even a christian and underneath it all i'm hoping also to convert him but you see it's an entirely different approach it's got its own dangers of its dangers is that a
the kind of our water down the radical mass of christian deep to try to convince this chap it you can accept this we can plug into this it's not that unreasonable this christian so it's not that radicals of simpler says i determined preach christ crucified nothing else
rice crucified it's foolishness for the greeks and a scandal for the jews surfing know you're trying to show even the reasonableness of times and their archaeological presuppositions you have to be worked up in what sense is christianity reasonable
tutorial will be radically anti apology you don't make any apologies i believe because it's absurd there's no no reasonable with some christian tiny for approach and he'll not want a dialogue with anyone including the pope a catholic sympathy etc
of this is a different approach let's let's talk this through were both human beings repaired are both committed to the truth this is our common ground it's always presupposes here here we get to become a team of pluralism in the early documents there's not one approach here's the two trillion spirit and then
there's this spirit and would see many others in the spirit of apology you can hold already scripture as a basis for this approach first peter three fifteen if you want to look better that's the kind of
foundation for all later apologetic works and the tech street
sanctify the lord in your heart be ready always to give an explanation or defense the word is a polo g on in that a greek leader will become a polo g i which is the genre here be ready always to give up a panagia to everyone asking
you an explanation logos concerning the hoping you but with meekness and fear not a kind of violent with to produce your smash them with your syllogism sums but with weakness and fear be prepared to give
even a production a defense and explanation regarding the hoping that once

when i don't remember
when would want to look that up a p interesting i don't remember that at all
look that up
ah and this brings up the relevant issue today is your space for g o g today are we as many say in a kind of a post-christian pagan age many people come up to they ask us hear about the hope in us regarding on christianity basically
even regarding the monastic life go near to correct what is it all about why are you here can come out any which isn't this foolish aren't there were serious problems in the world that you should be after etc what do you respond to that
when approach you don't respond anything in your life it's experience if they're living if they'll understand if you're not living that they'll never understand so that's a different approach is huge but someone like a quadratic certain will ever be the author of this this approach is no enter into a dialogue discussion even debate if necessary
a poor loggia is often debate and is tough here in many sections to another section is very very gentle and he at the andy office a whole beautiful theology of christian childrens but he's not wishy washy and he's not survival and he's prepared to to battle it through his person so i think
this is very relevant for today people are asking questions today
christianity the catholic church other churches monasticism what do we do confronted by these questions
and more profoundly are these questions inside us and so far as where twentieth century people so much of this apology is also a dialogue with ourselves
an answer will his defense theology as faith seeking understanding you believe but then you try to work through because you do have this curious organ up here called the mind and you try to relate when miss few to another you try to relate of the whole of christian history simply to human existence does it crushing and acts
distance is it's absurd to julian would say or is it fulfillment of our our deepest home soon human aspirations etc so the sort of thing
the letters of paul and the letters of clement etc christianity is expanding you announce the good news you
you call people to conversion and then little communities are set up and you see to strengthen those communities with all sorts of letters so we saw there's a paul letters appointment letters information this is their function christian to christian to fortify the inner christian community resolve certain problems exhort against disunity
he exhorted against certain deviations judaism we listen to zedek spiritualism etc here's something else again christianity has grown so much particularly in the cities throughout the empire would see some references here it's curious that the last place christianity was able to pay
bitrate was into the country sites the pagani the people of the police said the country but it was in the cities throughout the empire that christianity took root often into those classes the slaves the simple tradespeople now because it was springing up all over by the end of
a century was all over the empire people start getting worried we're not christians and they started taking the response that people are often tempted to rooms religious feel that is exert power so they go to the authorities and say clamp down on these people they're dangerous
the old crush them through power thing and so the christian exigency to dialogue with also authorities with intellectuals etc to say book that in yeah there's no reason to persecute us if they were to be prosecuted and even that they can see they will be ready next we want to
move onto the great great have suggested murder also create apologise but at the end of tied up very very roy of martyr's death so they were ready for that but they weren't just trying to er
it wasn't a suicide trip wasn't a kind of provoked them to kill a new thing but same book made your called the christian maybe you've got to work as through all the lies are being told about us are not true
first of all clarify that and then try to overcome this of power tactic
so that's what sleep the whole context of character of the document
it's a very early document there's nothing about the holy spirit for instance as always a sign that we're early things take time to work out in a christian consciousness there's nothing here about bishops for priests for deacons for a sentence or this sort of in so there's that site it's not
that every patristic document is going to really bolster up on the patriot claims and higgs entered the monarchy condition etc know some but we can mention it but up
the relation of the christian to the world or two human values it's can be a very very interesting model here that i can really challenges us today maybe is very relevant to us today of an be a theme will come up justin martyr so we want to keep up
i am not problem there are some themes that come up perennially through the father's you have a variety of solutions one of the key questions is what is the relation of christian christian spirituality christian life at the one hand to human values human philosophy human culture on the
what's the relation
we'll see if there's time many different models each with some kind of roots in the fathers and it's a challenge to us some of the things that we discussed today they've been debated for centuries and it's what a very fruitful to work through these debates and nc words not just something that popped up two years ago in summary agree
national catholic reporter or something but it's been battle through the centuries and does one can relate it to it
oh so what is the context of the dutchman
here he is very a genteel and courteous entering into dialogue with this herbie mann of prestige and an intellectual
it starts out i have noticed my lord die are diabetes so it's called the lead to diabetes who is this dignitas against scholars getting voltage it might be a very honorific title for the emperor as we get the greetings but until wise one sentence up
might be a name made up the whole thing might be an artifice like got some of the dialogues of plato
or there might be a real dialogue meters there was a a tutor of one of the emperor's called or diabetes so it might be that so who is this died into disgrace things i have noticed my lord the deep interest you have been showing in christianity and the close and careful inquiry
these you have been making about it so you start with him not a christian who asks things now where do you do there you know who apologetic dilemma to try to give a response for the hoping you away
you would like to know what god christians believed in what sort of cult the practice which enables them to set so little store by this world are not ruling people clutching tips and even to make light of death itself so again this isn't written fear and trembling that things might go wrong but simply a dick
unified let's stand up and recently through since they reject the deities revered by the greeks no less than they disclaim the superstitions protest by the jews it's going to very careful clear structure you will see it starts out against the idolatry of the pagans and against illegal isn't the jews
you are curious to about the warm fraternal affection they all feel for one-on-one this is beautiful
they will know your disciples my disciples because of your loan
the warm for eternal affection they all feel for one another you read get that kind of early christians springtime spirit to this we will always happens it won't be any a great affection and to tune in for instance who is trying to earn thrust people truly i'm also you are pass
sold as to why this new breed of men or at least this novel manner of life as only come into our lives recently started much earlier this is a deeper theoretical question you claim you have the truth and you're just sprung up the day before yesterday well where was truth before then and if all are great predecessors and philosophers it's
where they actually in here why this recent this is a problem that christians will struggle with a great deal also it's already the new testament you know a theology of quite in this slate time it's an interesting problem
his garden uninterested in all the generations of people before him i salute this eagerness for knowledge on your part this is beautiful
it's not saying you're a pagan shut up
one of the seminarians of i don't if it's true adams looked it up and he was quoting some medieval christian king saying if any jew ask any question about the fate respond by thrusting your sword into the but
now this is a rather different approaches i salute this eagerness for knowledge on your part and i pray god the author of both speech and hearing this is beautiful
this is getting great value to you see human the house to steam the locals the capacity to dialogue to grab me such use of my time that you may derive the forest benefit from listening to me and to use such use of your ears that i may have no cause to regret having spoken so question
this is the structure of apologetic this is the old structure of theology according to some theologians are human condition poses certain queries and we have our face and then theology response to them this is the dialogue dimension of the christian life then it goes right into
the first against paganism he's not wishy washy does not serve i always think you've got good things but also we have couldn't say no and he gets very tough right from their beginnings begin then by clearing your mind of the prejudices and harbors shake off the hidebound notions which can only lead to error and put yourself in a position of a break
brand new man on the point of hearing what you yourself admit to be a brand new language so he's requiring some kind of leap our foot
a faith or was from the beginning or at least i'm quite a tabula rasa
people who study the mechanism of
the aesthetic moment when you go in and see are still they say it all presupposes his suspension of disbelief i go in there and it's a film about the middle ages i'm certainly the middle ages i put aside know i'm really here in a theater and nine not know suddenly i just accept what said in a person comes out and
he supposed to be that some of the king and i don't say well how do i know is this is no used some of the capital so he's seen put yourself in a suspension of disbelief interesting
so it's not a very a kind of us using pagan logic to kind of tripping into christianity producing know this is something quite new but we can still do it it's so no but we can still dialogue so it's a dialectic opposition then he charges against idolatry then take a good look with your intelligence and
substance of those objects which you call gods and ought to be divine is there one here for instance anything other than a block of stone identical in kind with the stones we tread under our feet and this says there might be some of silver and and you've gotta have a guard around to protect them your might be some of goal but then you have to polish them up etc
the kind of sarcasm against idolatry that you only already finding the psalms and new testament second very strong do you really call these things gods and do you really do service for them yes indeed you do you worshipped in and you end up becoming like them the great song is it not
because we christians refuse to acknowledge their divinity that you dislike us some so this is putting a very clear were being persecuted primarily because we don't like your idolatry
so there's no again where she will she survive business here
then it goes on i'm not calling choose precisely idolaters he says there is something different going on here their proclaimers of the one god but then it goes on a end up much less it's bad straight spin than pagan idolatry so that's his next thing and this is quite history
mikel christians were living in a pagan roman world surrounded by idols they were often mistaken the christians is a kind of just a sect of judaism a kind of a variant of judaism
and sink this ain't the tube and were quite as against judaism as we are against paganism mr de my sermon i noted the problems with against the a kind of advent of mentalities both of worldliness and of judaic legalism policies we just kind of us patristic
precedent for this
fighting the battle and on both fronts not being so anti worldly etc that will accept any form of religiosity as the answer no christians have to be wary on both fronts
next i expect what you want most to hear about is our christian unwillingness to accept the faith of the jews admittedly since they have no truck with a sort of religion that i've been describing all these stone gods and things choose me fairly claim to be devoted of the one true god and to acknowledge him as their sovereign nevertheless in so far
as they do him service with right similar to those of the heathens they are in error many textures a fixed legalism and they're sacrificing beasts to plaque a this angry ya vale and their nervously looking at what these days or holy days according the phases of the moon
and what foods are clean and what foods are not clean and the importance of circumcision cetera there's a whole page and a half against this very briefly
the maker of heaven and earth and all therein supply of our every need could never himself be in any need of the very things which are actually his own gifts to the self styled givers so he argues against judaism on theological grounds this transcendent god as dogs legalist
dick nervousness and all this slaughter of beasts indeed so long as they believe themselves to be fulfilling their sacrificial duty to him by means of blood and fad burnt offerings and fancy they are doing them under by such rights and cannot see there is anything to choose between them and the made a lavish similar attentions on deaf and dumb either
bulls and he comes into a very lovely play of words here one party it seems makes its offerings to creatures which cannot partake of the gifts and the others to one who needs none of them ah the fathers or i'm sorry the patristic scholars wanted this is a beautifully structured
document some of the early christian writings clearly come from people who are that literate and aren't that but
princess question says this is among the most beautiful and brilliant of ancient greek christian literature of the writer is a master of rhetoric is sentence structure is full of charm and subtle balance your style is limpid of the diction sparkles with fire and vitality etc so it's beautiful to read this just for its
a local brilliance it would want to be someone like quadrat to so very distinguished christian intellectual who can do this sort of thing of the great anglican of patristic scholar lightfoot says that this is the noblest of early christian writings are just the style but that will see major the very deep beautiful of
geology and so there's this site of it as for their scrupulous about meets in their superstitions about the sabbath than their much vaunted circumcision such and because i'm in that so this is an interesting side and this is the essence of apologetic also in its debate side we are here we are not there an
and we're drawing the distinction very clearly
then he goes into a whole wealth when is our view then of
god of christians in the world of christ etc it's interesting that he starts with christians in the world of subheadings in this penguin thing is characteristics of the christian community why because this is the most visible and tangible thing for the paint that this is what surprises them
he doesn't immediately encountered their sublime spiritual theology or their concept of god he encounters how they live the way they behave etc and this raises many questions mrs very interesting
there's a whole theology the new testament of wonder christ those things and the people around him wonder the apostles to thinks he causes wonder some ask if our compartment today cause a similar wonder or do we seem to be ex following in our own way a kind of very human logic of power and dutch
security in dumps this sort of thing but they cost one hundred and seventy christians
now what is the relation of christians in the world and he traces it up i think a model it's quite surprising to us and quite different from anything we've had for many many generations really
the difference between christians and the rest of mankind is not a matter of nationality or language or customs christians do not never part in separate cities have their own do not speak any special language or dialect
a practice any special way of life
best their lives in whatever township greek or foreign which man's lot has been determined and conform to ordinary local usage in clothing diet another happens so this isn't a gathered group that tries to
insist on its own cultural identity by setting up it's a little townships its own language it's own customs it's own dress this will be an approach later in certain way it's a monastic approach there's many things to think through here but no language of our own leisure for six lakh
because these sacred language of the roman church to distinguish from middle eastern church it's address no no special languages the eastern will have old slavonic could sit around the anglican will have old english such no no special thanks to speak whatever language is on the that's not it
no special dress no special spaces where we live in a special customs
ah whatever township etc this is mean that they just blend into paganism and just become pagan not at all and hearing starts drawing very clear distinctions nevertheless the organization of their community does exhibit some features that are remarkable and even surprising who is this surprising you don't surprise because you're speaking and
language is sacred language it's different from the language you claims inferior on your part you don't dress in a way that you insist this is more close to god that they were you don't have other customs but there are some things that are surprising what are these
for instance go they are residence at home in their own countries their behavior there is more like that of tensions spread does a footnote year it says the very same greek word used here is the word remember we ran into climate will bang out began his transient or resident aliens
see no one of the inscription of clemency percent with the same greek word he supplied to the corinthian church became a favorite description of the christian community in any locality and this eventually made its way of the english language as parish but which is paradoxical because then you get very rooted in your parish the but originally it meant aliens just kind of
on the border on the margin passing through
for them it's easily this is particularly beautiful for them any foreign country is a motherland and any motherland is a foreign country so we're not patriotic in our christian nation against the pagan nations we've got our christian armies you know every nation is our fatherland we our motherland just as
whether level every nation is equally
foreign to us
so one can see here also i ever thought renting subversive these christians who didn't fit him to the
the loyalty to the emperor and touch patriotic and this sort of thing
like other men they marry and beget children no obsessing over solid opinion though they do not expose their inference or apparently the pagans if their baby was born particularly defective or we reviewed just put a bead put in such ways to naturally die cushions don't do that they accept the baby that
any christian is free to share his neighbors table
withdraw into little groups share their neighbors table but never his marriage bed effects so it's a profoundly moral level that you distinguish christians
though destiny is placed them here in the flesh they do not live after the flesh so in the world but not at the world that's the essence of this their days are passed on earth but their citizenship is above in the evans already the integrate new testament to the obey the prescribed laws but in their own private lives they transcend
they're not revolutionaries but they're not hidebound by the balls indeed when they'll be obliged to sacrifice to the gods part of the doors of the empire to signal
they show love to all men and all men persecute them the obvious understood and condemned that by suffering death they are quickened into life
so a loving community that's persecuted
of the are poor yet making many rich lacking all things should have golfing some abundance for sounded a very eloquent william this paradoxical thing that recalls and call
so it's an image of the christian community in the world
the french bishops and said for instance we are now primarily in missionary ridge we can no longer pretend to glances catholic no one goes to church they baptized and she and patio
in italy they said something see the italian bishops we are in a missionary situation in environments said when we do it you try to fortify our institutions you have a catholic schools are catholic hospitals are catholic newspapers in italy we've got a catholic political parties
traditional italian approach to know it's been interesting every parish of has rebounded a whole series of sociological institutions to make the catholic community it's own sort of self contained you there is a catholic political party again it's lou it for good or good for now since the
sure there's a catholic newspaper there's every parish has its own catholic socrates its own catholic playing fields its own often catholic cinema
one of the books was telling me to be used to be as you had to confess it if you went to any other theaters except the catholic theater because some sort of catholic field and showed in the catholic theater the money money will go then it is the catholic bar and right next to the church and run by the church it's not a bar in our sin
it's down in the bronx and said greasy place hooks up with buy sandwiches he called there the whole family goes and but you can always buy liquor the etc well that's the place italians go to check sentra when you need to catholic bar where go shut up catholic picture it so this is an approach to this thread to this challenge of
non christianity in i would create a catholic identity and of course of the catholic feast things the whole village celebrates with with a procession is buddha speaks the catholic saints and the catholic hymns and the sacred language and all the little boys dressed up the whole thing
we give a catholic identity to the catholic presence and battle against anything that isn't explicitly catholic this is one approach
and the debate in europe this is this the right approach and we priests are asking because the italian parish priest has to organize the socrates and as protect the films together and at the bar to chat and organize you were going to be the candidate some epic poem in august institution thing is
quite a heavy thing and want so economically the catholic schools etc to teach can a biology can be mathematic city it's tremendous economic boom and some were asking is this what it's all about
well and some point back to a patristic active citizens for a whole different approach which is sometimes called the eleven approach
we are not set apart we don't have our own cities we don't have our special languages we don't have accepted ways of life of
and he goes out to spell this out the to put it briefly the relation of christians to the world is that have a soul to the body
the soul is diffused through every part of the bottom so are christians who all the cities of the world
so to inhabits the body who the same time forming rope part of it and the christian inhabits the world but they are not part of the same in but not out but all through the world animating the world the soul visible itself is in the world so christians can be record
nice in the world but their christianity itself remains hidden from the eye of the flesh
the sole loves the french and all its members despite their hatred for her christians to love those who hate them the sole should have inside the body nevertheless holds the body together though they are confined within the world it is christians who hold the world to get so
this is the image don't know if you remember a phrase or don't bring was cited for or yesterday or incarnation the christians that don't stamp christianity and everything for christian art in christian culture but incarnate in the world not uses the word even anonymous
the in the world to waive the christian flight even rarely at the key moments of heights of the human experience in the depths but normally have to be theirs as christians animated holding together true love through service simply through being in this way
this is the model of levity we heard in the reading of st paul a woman's yesterday a little holy eleven in the mass lemons the whole man's so christians are diffuse to every city they don't withdraw into let's create a christian city but throughout all the sea
please they speak any language there is a be christian language but they can speak greek and athens it can speak of asia or latin in rome which is picked up then because it's the language of people aren't they can speak whatever dialect whatever language
there's not christian bar or her christian newspaper but there's christians who wander into a bar and talk christian me to people in any bar or they'll played in any team and christian said there isn't the christian socrates agency
something headline seven sports pages of the rio handling papers or symptoms phone from st joseph trump's this
no it's christians in because there's nothing essentially christian about a football team or basketball it but there's a christian way to be in a football team or a christian way to speak a language there is not be christian language this was to be thirty years this is the only cat
click language lab
and if you read that great totally
guy who are indeed
and do it more and more as centuries pass into the middle ages and will create a sacred christian empire and a secret language wasted rest of it this is pre that expert but
oh yum
i ended
this is before that and we are esther that that's what some people argue for instance are there was a holy roman empire will see that later that the lions made it a certain decisive point between church and emperor constantine and something very different concern that when you have
christian empire you have christian armies you have christian laws forbid
and then that starts collapse and the holy crow christian empire collapses and then what do you do
there was a david debates all the young decades ago about the holy that language and i remember a world prof of and some
yeah he was hiding this a vatican's to say we must hold onto the latin language because it's the last remnant we add the holy roman empire it's what unites the united states in africa and england etc the way that the holy roman empire once united us so it's the sign that
universal our unity in the one faith and if that goes what have we got
well this answer when we've cut the faith
christians in america can speak english without embarrassment christians in italy can speak italian and so it ain't the language that unites us wear the dress for it's this free it's at the level as he says you can't see it's a two level of growth so christians can be recognized in the world but their christiana
in friendly i so it's all i'm saying and radicalizing the challenge because it's a debate going on all over europe what do you do in this neil piquant situation to you everything to reinforce your
your separated
institutions and underline your separated this this is a real problem of orthodoxy so tied into the ethnic identity inside a friend who is up
his mother was an armenian orthodox will to go into that parish who really had to armenian was the only language and all european customs these days foods and clothes a who bit to be a christian and was identical to the language of the whole bit
it's a global to totality now when hints at a certain age would say will wait i'm an american kid you know of
can the crisis that's the problem
do i believe in armenian for customs or do i believe in jesus christ what is the relation of these two so the strength of the visible social scientists it it reinforces it makes visible it but the problem is all cultural things are ambiguous and once you get an identity of
the culture with the depths of a fade and once the cultural traits starts to slip away because history books on and people just don't know that many more for instance where do you do i think the word
i went to bed
as they just as birth
he got sidetracked

your institution notice is and another level if by institution in the church which isn't primarily institution but body of christ and
he stresses very much christian community in okay but as is it for them
me realize so yeah
organization are right
oh and in athletes are not which means on have you ever have started some of us when you do with a foot hold over you understand the forms you understand that as simply tools and instruments or to you sacralized them an absolute ties them we've got to clean too
this custom because it's not like chemical detonator to are precisely but this wasn't always recognize
read a veteran sobriquet city about that are essential requirement of studying catholic theology latin of praying in latin your catholicity is so linked with latin that the one click there was a time when for instance wrong the pope was over the vatican states politically he was the
prince of about it was discussed is this of divine revelation is it required one of the very ultra mounting cold weather the very a
people as english cardinals went to vatican one wanting to insist that the people states were part of the divine revelation that anyone who said that the pope should be stripped of them as some catholic so-called liberals were arguing simply because it was an obstacle to is being shepherded he was
heretical so he wanted to have proclaimed that the council the divine right of the pope having his states that and in fact all those catholics were on the side of of the union of italy because italy was divided in lobbies little piece
he says no the biggest piece right and centre was the people so gotta evolve in all these people fighting for the union of italy the catholics on his side were excommunicated and pulled six very recently made it beautiful that i got concession that he was giving a speech at wrong to the mayor of rome use and he said those cat
mix in favor of the reunion of italy were certainly in the right
just beautiful which is somehow of people in one age or see is absolutely heretical but it seen it is prophetic because the papacy does not depend on possessing all of lombardy and all of the city of rome it's indeed that had a certain point become a real obstacle because the pope was seen as nothing but another prince
and so battles with him in taxes to raise and for the people are you sit them
there are still signs and still all of wrong if you see the monsignor mayor of rome orders anyone who spits on a sidewalk will be fined one hundred ducats or wouldn't
the whipped in public other things and historic it was the for identity of institution with faith but there's certain has to be institution and there has to be culture
yeah but they don't say that their identity depends upon them they could sell them tomorrow ideally you're not saying he's our sacred houses that can't be touched their pay taxes they're saying this is where we're at now
but they need the house as you're right you're going to have a roof over your head but the problem is when you come to say there's a catholic way to build a house is a sacred space here that no one can touch because it's israel maybe i'm so i work that

in every swearing

a struggling

yeah in any case it's something being debated today and something for us to work through because it touches so many forms of are like the relation of faith that it's deepest level
with a the a necessary inevitable expressions and the cultural of the outer an institutional level of this way you can't just absolutely spiritualized so there's no outer expressions in some point he seems almost do that you can't see christianity itself but on the other hand a he's
is challenging us to ask what is the temptation of absolute isaac these forms
and then they tend to slip so many people for being a catholic was not eating meat on friday etc and then when these things would change they went to crisis certain well that was a discipline and all not part of the essence so
ah then we go into
the theology which severe supine theology first of all there's a whole beautiful business about divine economy all this business of christians being in the world as sold the world will be of idea spirit in flesh and to hold the world together but not to become world but to transfer
and but to save the world
ole miss is not by chance or some kind of this is the will of the father
a paragraph eight those who want to work this and
heavenly father conceived a design great beyond all telling and he imparted it to no one but his son alone and so long as maintain the secrecy and kept his own wise counsel it seemed as though he had no care for us put us out of his mind so the pre incarnation periods this is
no gardens not taking this into his conference we don't know what it's all about with have this sub design
and as soon as you disclosed it through his beloved son reveal could have been planned since the beginning straightway he pulled out all the fullness of is bound your palms permitting us to share it has been factions see no such blessings and as none of us could have ever looked for this
beautiful noticeably you saying that it was persecuted in the smashed etc but and precisely because christian but he's not trained to build up christian armies to know he said it's all grace and it's all part of the divine can then quite a knowledge of god as
mystery this will come out always in the father's we don't have any easy handles on god with our little a scholastic definitions etc gardens transcendent mystery

i don't find that reputation and gardens at the school is out when seventy two so it's paragraph seven
your mighty himself the created universe that god know i can discern a he has sent out is true
oh and still find them
but at some point he stresses that god is pure are inevitable but with christ it becomes evident this is his main point and a whole theology to very high christology here these are made me slaves and simple people know been counted upon up
the team is very very exalted ideal of who is their leader of to this end he is not god is known as one might imagine sent to mankind some servant of his some angel some human prince is none of these ones that he said but it is no
one other the universal artificer and constructor himself storm but christ you to whom all things are created the sublime holding theology by whose agency god made the heavens said sees their bounds whose mystic word service very contemplative it
experienced be kind always the elements of creation submissively obey all of creation is an obedience to this christ
by whom son as a sign the limits of his course by day and whose command by right your billion and bales rooms so all creation under christ and in christ a beautiful crispy vision something like to yard will come up within our own time not afraid of the cosmos or
contempt of acknowledge all in christ's hands been guided by christ mistakes real thing it's not because they're living in the christian empire with a christian empire that they can see right above the christian and burps the final king and me a what you see this will be doing would be so astonished by the glue
laurie and splendor and richness of the christian emperor constantine know say this is the image of the glory and power and strength of christ know he's confirming an absolute poverty simplicity jumper is a pagan but they have even more exalted i think chris
biology now what does this mean does it mean the christ comes in power and might and kind of stumped some people then he gets into this chaotic christology right at the moment of in cognition and very very beautiful and also theology of god and here he gets into this gentleness theme is not on some kind of power trip which
is characteristic of his whole theology of christians in the world
when you start to think of a thief the italian approach of the catholic political party in the catholic newspapers in the catholic schools and the catholic parks for people who have the problems of christian this is very threatening
just about the whole thing going now us about this moral majority choose are terrifying people were not quite sure they're into protestant and catholic fundamental the were terrified what's going to happen to us what's going to happen to our civil liberties so it's they see it is a power-play a wanting to take over to
catholic candidates are christian candidates are you reporting candidates whoever and the dominate the schools a crucifix in every classroom this sort of things ah and behind that there's a certain christology and a certain theology well behind this approach of levin of simply being everywhere
it as poor as oppressed but loving and holding the whole thing together special behind this there's also a christology and of theology
and worse christ's coming as a man might suppose and power in terror and dread not so it was in gentleness and in humility as a king senses world son so god sent him as god he sent him but as man he said to him that because
cause he was paid to save by persuasion and what by compulsion
we're still before the christian armies the growth of impose conversion
for there is no compulsion found with god and says this isn't just a pass for a tactic but wood splinters and know because got himself does not compel no one real battles that to as the whole document christian liberty and the whole school of theology and such error has no rights
so if you've got a catholic she you have established the catholic religion with laws and something is taught him on the
there's no such thing as christian commitment to liberty when you empower you hold on to write a poem you work to get into power because only truth has rights or this was the famous mississippi
young and it came out of american bishops have been experience of rules and no catholics are committed to liberty and this because beef cannot be forced faith comes out of the deepest point of the human spirit which is liberty
a forest compelled faith is nothing and so the decree on christian and political instability just a document to meet them all the previously
his mission was no person or hounding of us it was invitation was it was in love not in judgment that he sent him
so i think this is really pretty and beautiful stuff it's a kind of a theology are run by nonviolence god is no environment christ is non-binding those christians of world should be nonviolent and how they can pave the one towards another for then he goes a bit about
this human take god and will thus be loving among yourselves if i can find them when should grasp these truths think how your joy will overflow what love you will feel for him loved him so instruments pagan ethics also big above exploded
if you loved him you will become an imitator of his goodness you're not be surprised that a man should be an imitator of god he can since got so moving happiness is not to be found dominating woods fellows and the power trip
or in wanting to have more than his weaker brethren or in possessing riches and riding roughshod over his inferiors no one can become an imitator of god like that twenty seven that's my point release saying that's not godly though god is omnipotent

ha saw that way by might get up on pop
they get up they
think was edited by the salad
like no and
when eradicated arthur
okay to question if you say don't be a resident that way okay because that way out
of contact with i really but for how to be aggressive today are we to be aggressive resident so i don't think he'd accept the question whether or not to be i think it's well as well put it this debate if i might work aggressive it she says how he thinks oh yeah i did there was only two ways even
might say that he is he might suggest a way as finally get a while but i think it his way of suggesting how to be aggressive he's going to be a relation to social every contact with was one though what people were crushed it definitely i think he'd say again i'm not suggesting how to be aggressive i'm exists suggest going to be christian
which is non aggressive well very well recipes ah but i mean this is how to how we too strong as christians
i'd be strong if ah is vitiated something a passive thing it's not week doesn't i mean it's going to talk about truth okay but it's actually polls ever done none know that's the old way to still there is no compulsion found with godwin
but how do we be strong rookie have some good suggestions here if a man whose shoulder his neighbors burden if you'd be ready to supply and others need from his own abundance if by sharing the blessings he has received from god with those were in want themselves he himself becomes a god to those receive his family such a man is indeed an imitator
or of god and then you will see and she walked the earth that there is a god who is operative in heaven so it's giving it to serving it's a loving this is his way of i wouldn't say being aggressive but being christian
so what's your goal
well it recently there was now gonna
he's had the strength this it's a challenge to us to work through i think it's a radical early christian challenge to some of our tactics mindsets also theology
ah maybe you don't want to radicalize too much mature but i think it is challenge and that's one of the joys of discovering the fathers because they don't just say to us things we want to hear etc
but there's radical as i say there's basic debates going on in catholicism in christianity to take how to be christian today and this is an approach that at least challenges there are other approaches there's approach of the moral majority there's the approach of all sorts of
but you can't equate them my when as one theology one approach when style
and another has another

a dedicated now
no it's a whole perennial argument of christian non violence will use a for suits

i didn't